Approximating the relationship among the degree of the reaction forces and the nodes on footprint during a stance phase

Bani Hashim, A.Y. and Abu Osman, Noor Azuan and Wan Abas, W.A.B. and Abdul Latif, L. (2013) Approximating the relationship among the degree of the reaction forces and the nodes on footprint during a stance phase. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 37 (1-2). pp. 258-264. ISSN 0307904X, DOI

PDF (Approximating the relationship among the degree of the reaction forces and the nodes on footprint during a stance phase)
Approximating_the_relationship_among_the_degree_of_the_reaction_forces_and_the_nodes_on_footprint_during_a_stance_phase.pdf - Other

Download (129kB)
Official URL:


This study examined the foot biomechanics that are utilized when foot is in contact with the ground during a stance phase. The purpose of the study was to investigate the normalized ground reaction forces that impacted certain sections and points on the footprint, and to identify patterns in the degrees to which these forces occurred. Foot was modeled in such a manner that a vertex represented a bone and an edge represented a joint, and a graph that depicted the foot was created. Twelve nodes were marked on the footprint and these were linked together to create a gait path. By fusing the graph and the gait path and by manipulating the mathematical models, a profile for an ideal bipedal walking locomotion was developed. A male subject performed bipedal walking through a force plate system in order to obtain the profile that reflected actual bipedal walking. The actual and the proposed profiles were compared and there were significant similarities between the two profiles, with both exhibiting an double-bump pattern. It is therefore viable that the approximation techniques proposed in this work may provide an alternative means over the application of a force plate system to generate a profile for bipedal walking. However, the accuracy and reliability of the results yielded from this technique need further investigation. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Export Date: 24 February 2014 Source: Scopus CODEN: AMMOD Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Bani Hashim, A.Y.; Department of Robotics and Automation, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Durian Tunggal, 76109 Melaka, Malaysia; email: References: Zadpoor, A.A., Nikooyan, A.A., The relationship between lower-extremity stress fractures and the ground reaction force: a systematic review (2011) Clin. Biomech., 26, pp. 23-28; Nakajima, K., Mizukami, Y., Tanaka, K., Tamura, T., Footprint-based personal recognition (2000) IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 47, pp. 1534-1537; Bani Hashim, A.Y., Abu Osman, N.A., Wan Abas, W.A.B., (2011), pp. 765-768. , Prosthetic foot design: the significance of the normalized ground reaction force, in: N.A. Abu Osman, W.A.B. Wan Abas, A.K. Abdul Wahab, H.-N. Ting, (Eds.), 5th Kuala Lumpur International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, IFMBE Proceedings, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaBani Hashim, A.Y., Abu Osman, N.A., Wan Abas, W.A.B., Abdul Latif, L., Evaluation of foot kinematic structure by the order of bones' vertices and joints' edges (2011) Int. J. Model. Simul., 31, p. 11; Gefen, A., Megido-Ravid, M., Itzchak, Y., Arcan, M., Biomedical analysis of the three-dimensional foot structure during gait: a basic tool for clinical applications (2000) J. Biomech. Eng., 122, pp. 630-639; Wang, W.J., Crompton, R.H., Analysis of the human and ape foot during bipedal standing with implications for the evolution of the foot (2004) J. Biomech., 37, pp. 1831-1836; Winter, D.A., Kinematics and kinematics patterns in human gait (1984) Hum. Mov. Sci., 3, pp. 51-76; Gronley, J.K., Perry, J., Gait analysis techniques (1984) Phys. Ther., 64, pp. 1837-1838; Peterson, M.J., Perry, J., Montgomery, J., Walking patterns of healthy subjects wearing rocker shoes (1985) Phys. Ther., 65, pp. 1483-1489; Laughman, R.K., Askew, L.J., Bleimeyer, R.R., Chao, E.Y., Objective clinical evaluation of function gait analysis (1984) Phys. Ther., 64; Su, P.-F., Gard, S.A., Lipschutz, R.D., Kuiken, T.A., Gait characteristics of person with bilateral transtibial amputations (2007) J. Rehabil. Res. Dev., 44, pp. 491-502; McGinley, J.L., Goldie, P.A., Greenwood, K.M., Olney, S.J., Accuracy and reliability of observational gait analysis data: judgments of push-off in gait after stroke (2003) Phys. Ther., 83, pp. 146-160; Krebs, D.E., Edelstein, J.E., Fishman, S., Reliability of observational kinematic gait analysis (1985) Phys. Ther., 65, pp. 1027-1033; Elftman, H., Dynamic structure of the human foot (1969) Artif. Limbs, 13, pp. 49-58
Uncontrolled Keywords: Bipedal walking, Edge, Graph, Vertex, Vertical ground reaction force, Ground reaction forces, Biophysics, Biped locomotion, Mathematical models, Graph theory.
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Mr Jenal S
Date Deposited: 12 Mar 2014 03:28
Last Modified: 07 Feb 2019 07:44

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item