Resultant muscle torque and electromyographic activity during high intensity elastic resistance and free weight exercises

Aboodarda, S.J. and Hamid, M.S.A. and Che Muhamed, A.M. and Ibrahim, F. and Thompson, M. (2013) Resultant muscle torque and electromyographic activity during high intensity elastic resistance and free weight exercises. European Journal of Sport Science, 13 (2). pp. 155-163. ISSN 17461391 , DOI

PDF (Resultant muscle torque and electromyographic activity during high intensity elastic resistance and free weight exercises)
Resultant_muscle_torque_and_electromyographic_activity_during_high.pdf - Other

Download (226kB)
Official URL:


The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare Resultant Muscle Torque (RMT) and muscle activation (EMG) pattern, during resistance exercise comprising eight repetitions maximum (8 RM) biceps curl with elastic resistance and free weight exercise. Sixteen male and female recreationally active subjects completed 8 RM biceps curl by each of three modalities of resistance exercise: (i) dumbbell (DB), (ii) elastic tubing with original un-stretched length at the commencement of contraction (E0), and (iii) elastic tubing with 30 decrement of original length (E30) at the commencement of contraction. The magnitude of muscle activation, external force, acceleration as well as range of motion (ROM) were quantified and synchronised by specific software. The data were collected from all eight repetitions but the first (initial), the fifth (middle) and the eighth (last) repetitions were selected for further data analysis. Each selected repetition was partitioned into a concentric and eccentric phase and then each phase was further divided into three equal segments (3 concentric and 3 eccentric = 6 segments per repetition). The EMG and RMT data demonstrated a bell-shaped muscle activation and muscle torque production pattern for the three modes of exercise. The E30 resulted in 15.40 and 14.89 higher total EMG (μV) as well as 36.85 and 17.71 higher RMT (N · m) than E0 and DB, respectively (all P <0.05). These findings support the contention that an elastic resistance device (E30) has the capacity to provide an appropriate high resistance stimulus to meet the training requirement of elite athletes. © 2013 Copyright European College of Sport Science.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Export Date: 29 January 2014 Source: Scopus Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Aboodarda, S. J.; Sports Centre, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia; email: References: Alway, S.E., Grumbt, W.H., Stray-Gundersen, J., Gonyea, W.J., Effects of resistance training on elbow flexors of highly competitive bodybuilders (1992) Journal of Applied Physiology, 72, pp. 1512-1521; Anderson, C.E., Sforzo, G.A., Sigg, J.A., The effects of combining elastic and free weight resistance on strength and power in athletes (2008) The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 22, pp. 567-574; Aura, O., Komi, P.V., Effects of prestretch intensity on mechanical efficiency of positive work on elastic behavior of skeletal muscle in stretch-shortening cycle exercises (1986) International Journal of Sport Medicine, 7, pp. 137-143; Bobbert, M.F., Gerritsen, K.G.M., Litjens, M.C.A., Van Soest, A., Why is countermovement jump height greater than squat jump height? (1996) Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 28 (11), pp. 1402-1412; Cronin, J.B., Henderson, M.E., Maximal strength and power assessment in novice weight trainers (2004) The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 18 (1), pp. 48-52; Ebben, W.E., Jensen, R.L., Electromyographic and kinetic analysis of traditional, chain, and elastic band squats (2002) The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 16, pp. 547-550; Enoka, R., (2002) Neuromechanics of human movement, , 3rd ed, Champaign, IL, Champaign, IL,: Human Kinetics; Fleck, S.J., Kraemer, W.J., (2004) Designing resistance training programs, , Champaign, IL, Champaign, IL,: Human Kinetics; Fry, A.C., The role of resistance exercise intensity on muscle fiber adaptations (2004) Sport Medicine, 34, pp. 663-679; Grimshaw, P., Fowler, N., Lees, A., Burden, A., (2006) Sport and exercise biomechanics, , Taylor and Francis Inc. United State; Harman, H., The biomechanics of resistance exercise (2000) Essentials of strength training and conditioning, pp. 26-56. , In: Baechle T.R., Earle R.W., editors Champaign, IL, Champaign, IL,: Human Kinetics; Hermens, H.J., Freriks, B., Merletti, R., Hägg, G.G., Stegeman, D., Blok, J., Rau, G., Disselhorst-Klug, C., SENIAM 8: European Recommendations for Surface ElectroMyoGraphy, deliverable of the SENIAM project Roessingh Research and Development b.v., 1999, ISBN: 90-75452-15-2Hintermeister, R.A., Lange, G.W., Schultheis, J.M., Bey, M.J., Hawkins, R.J., Electromyographic activity and applied load during shoulder rehabilitation exercises using elastic resistance (1998) The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 26 (2), pp. 210-220; Hodges, G.N., (2006) The effect of movement strategy and elastic starting strain on shoulder resultant joint moment during elastic resistance exercise, , Manitoba, Canada, Manitoba,: University of Manitoba (Unpublished Thesis); Hopkins, J.T., Christopher, D.I., Michelle, A.S., Susan, D.B., An electromyographic comparison of 4 closed chain exercises (1999) Journal of Athletic Training, 34 (4), pp. 353-357; Hostler, D., Schwirian, C.I., Campos, G., Toma, K., Hagerman, F.C., Staron, R.S., Skeletal muscle adaptation in elastic resistance training young men and women (2001) European Journal of Applied Physiology, 86, pp. 112-118; Hortobagyi, T., Barrier, J., Beard, D., Braspennincx, J., Koens, P., Devita, P., Greater initial adaptations to submaximal muscle lengthening than maximal shortening (1996) Journal of Applied Physiology, 81, pp. 1677-1682; Hughes, C.J., Hurd, K., Jones, A., Sprigle, S., Resistance properties of Thera-Band® tubing during shoulder abduction exercise (1999) Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 29 (7), pp. 413-420; Jackson, A.S., Pollock, M.L., Generalized equation for predicting body density of men (1978) British Journal of Nutrition, 40, pp. 497-504; Kluemper, M., Uhl, T.L., Hazelrigg, H., Effect of stretching and strengthening shoulder muscles on forward shoulder posture in competitive swimmers (2006) Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 15 (1), pp. 58-70; Kraemer, W.J., Dudley, G.A., Dooly, C., Feignbaum, M.S., Fleck, S.J., Franklin, B., Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults (2002) Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34, pp. 364-380; Kraemer, W.J., Ratamess, N.A., Fundamentals of resistance training: Progression and exercise prescription (2004) Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 36, pp. 674-688; Kraemer, W.J., Ratamess, N.A., Hormonal response and adaptation to resistance exercise and training (2005) Journal of Sport Medicine, 35, pp. 339-361; Kroon, G.W., Naeije, M., Recovery of the human biceps electromyogram after heavy eccentric, concentric or isometric exercise (1991) European Journal of Applied Physiology, 63 (6), pp. 444-448; Lim, Y., Chow, J., Electromyographic comparison of biceps curls performance using a dumbbell and an elastic tubing (1998), WaterlooLinnamo, V., Newton, R.U., Häkkinen, K., Komi, P.V., Davie, A., McGuigan, M., Neuromuscular responses to explosive and heavy resistance loading (2000) Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 10, pp. 417-424; Linnamo, V., Pakarinen, A., Komi, P., Kraemer, W., Häkkinen, K., Acute hormonal responses to submaximal and maximal heavy resistance and explosive exercises in men and women (2005) Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19 (3), pp. 566-571; Matheson, J.W., Kernozek, T.W., Fater, D.C.W., Davies, G.J., Electromyographic activity and applied load during seated quadriceps exercises (2001) Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33, pp. 1713-1725; Moore, C.A., Schilling, B.K., Theory and application of augmented eccentric loading (2005) Strength and Conditioning Journal, 27 (5), pp. 20-27; Moritani, T., Time course of adaptations during strength and power training (1992) Strength and power in sport, pp. 266-278. , In: Komi P.V., editors Oxford, Oxford,: Blackwell Scientific; Muhitch, L., (2006) Electromyographic investigation of free weights and Thera-Band, , State University of New York College at Cortland, New York, USA, (Unpublished Thesis); Newsam, C., Leese, C., Fernandez-Silva, J., Intratester reliability for determining an 8-repetition maximum for 3 shoulder exercises using elastic bands (2005) Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 14 (1), pp. 35-47; Page, P., Ellenbecker, T., (2003) The scientific and clinical application of elastic resistance, , Champaign, IL, Champaign, IL,: Human Kinetics; Page, P., Lamberth, J., Abadie, B., Boling, R., Collins, R., Collins, R., Posterior rotator cuff strengthening using Theraband® in a functional diagonal pattern in collegiate baseball pitchers (1993) Journal of Athletic Training, 28, pp. 346-354; Schulthies, S.S., Ricard, M.D., Alexander, K.J., Myrer, J.W., An electromyographic investigation of 4 elastic-tubing closed kinetic chain exercises after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (1998) Journal of Athletic Training, 33 (4), pp. 328-335; Sheppard, J., Hobson, S., Barker, M., Taylor, K., Chapman, D., McGuigan, M., The effect of training with accentuated eccentric load counter-movement jumps on strength and power characteristics of high-performance volleyball players (2008) International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 3 (3), pp. 355-363; Simoneau, G.G., Bereda, S.M., Sobush, D.C., Starsky, A.J., Biomechanics of elastic resistance in therapeutic exercise programs (2001) Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 31, pp. 16-24; Treiber, F.A., Lott, J., Duncan, J., Slavens, G., Davis, H., Effects of Theraband and lightweight dumbbell training on shoulder rotation torque and serve performance in college tennis players (1998) The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 26, pp. 510-515; Wallace, B.J., Winchester, J.B., McGuigan, M.R., Effects of elastic bands on force and power characteristics during the back squat exercise (2006) The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20, pp. 268-272; Winter, D.A., (2004) Biomechanics and motor control of human movement, , Waterloo, Wiley InterScience; Zatsiorsky, V.M., (2002) Kinematics of human motion, , Champaign, IL, Champaign, IL,: Human Kinetics
Uncontrolled Keywords: elastic tubing, multiple repetitions maximum, Resistance training, variable exercises
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Mr Jenal S
Date Deposited: 21 Mar 2014 02:33
Last Modified: 01 Nov 2017 06:00

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item