Source rock pyrolysis and bulk kinetic modelling of Miocene sedimentary sequences in southeastern Sabah, Malaysia: The variability of thermal maturity to oil-gas producing kerogen

Thana'Ani, Nur Amalina Ahmad and Mustapha, Khairul Azlan and Idris, Mohammed (2022) Source rock pyrolysis and bulk kinetic modelling of Miocene sedimentary sequences in southeastern Sabah, Malaysia: The variability of thermal maturity to oil-gas producing kerogen. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 208 (C). ISSN 0920-4105, DOI

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The study reports a new organic geochemical evaluation for a petroleum source rock in the Southeastern (SE) Sabah basin. The analyses focus on Kalabakan, Tanjong, and Kapilit Formation deposited in the deltaic-shallow marine environment stratigraphically from the Early to Late Miocene sequences. The basin sediments are part of the hydrocarbon prolific Tarakan basin, extending from the northernmost of Kalimantan Indonesia to the southeastern Sabah (mainly onshore area). The hydrocarbon generation of Kapilit and Tanjong Formation pinnacles the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) contents that range from 0.62 to 81.97 wt% and 0.97-92.96 wt% respectively. The dominant black shale in Kalabakan Formation has lower TOC content between 0.50 and 1.82 wt%. The results in the Rock-Eval S-2 of Kapilit (0.31-351.61 mg HC/g rock) and Tanjong Formation (3.32-239.78 mg HC/g rock) have excellent source rock potential compared to the Kalabakan Formation (0.12-1.19 mg C/g rock) with fair to good source rock potential. All three formations give a wide maturity range of vitrinite reflectance (VR0) and Tmax values, from immature to over-mature stage. Stratigraphically from youngest to oldest Miocene sequences, the Tmax increases with increasing VRo values. The dispersion of organic matter that requires high maturity and overburden of thick upper succession over Kalabakan Formation reflects a higher maturity stage than the Tanjong and Kapilit Formations. Pyrolysis results in Kapilit, Tanjong, and Kalabakan Formation has HI values to varies between 50 and 498 mg HC/g, 157-367 mg HC/g and 14-110 mg HC/g TOC respectively. The binary plot of HI versus Tmax supported by Py-GC pyrolysis marks that the Kapilit source rock is dominated by Type II-III kerogen, potentially generating immature to mature oil and gas prone. Tanjong Formation portrays a mature to late mature stage of Type III kerogen with a minor Type II kerogen capable of producing mixing of oil and gas prone, with mainly gas. The Kalabakan Formation shows a post-mature Type III and IV kerogen that generates gas or barren source rock. In terms of bulk kinetic evaluation, both Kapilit and Tanjong Formation are derived from heterogeneous organic matter. The projected petroleum temperature varies substantially due to the compositional variation. The onset of bulk petroleum generation in the Kapilit and Tanjong Formation occur at 112 degrees C - 128 degrees C and 127 degrees C - 142 degrees C respectively. The results are consistent with the maturity generated where the Tanjong has higher thermal maturity than Kapilit Formation due to stable aromatic Type III kerogen. Generally, all samples show great variability in thermal maturity and hydrocarbon generation potential, which that be influenced by the tectonism and development of sediments in the basin. The Early Miocene source rock yields post mature gas prone and continues to generate hydrocarbon that consists of mature oil and gas prone from younger source rocks.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Universiti Malaya [Grant No: BK0852016]
Uncontrolled Keywords: Organic geochemistry; Source rock evaluation; Maturity; Bulk kinetic; Hydrocarbon generating potential
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Geology
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 26 Apr 2022 04:21
Last Modified: 26 Apr 2022 04:21

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