Techno economic analysis of using solar water heaters with evacuated tubes in Khartoum, Sudan

Gamil, A.A.A. and Mekhilef, Saad and Said, Suhana Mohd (2012) Techno economic analysis of using solar water heaters with evacuated tubes in Khartoum, Sudan. Energy Education Science and Technology Part A: Energy Science and Research, 28 (2). pp. 611-622. ISSN 1308-772X,

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This paper presents the techno-economic study of using solar water heaters employing evacuated tubes in Khartoum, Sudan. Sudan experiences high solar irradiation and is thus a good candidate for harnessing solar energy. One direct application of solar energy is for domestic water heating applications, which has the potential of significant savings on the national energy consumption if used extensively. This study will first introduce the technological and economic benefits of using solar water heated containing evacuated tubes, which have shown better efficiency compared to flat plate solar water heaters. The operational requirements and efficiency of this system will then be compared against the output and efficiency of an electric water heater. The relative costs of each system will also be analyzed and discussed. Also it found that the heat gained from the solar collector was enough for producing hot water and the amount of mass flow rate that was suitable for natural circulation, thus eliminating the need for a driving pump, and reducing the overall cost for the solar water heater system. The techno-economic analysis is then carried out in order to analyze the payback period for a range of number of households required to employ this system. This analysis indicates that a saving was 415.2 USD per year for 8 households and the payback period ranged between 0.98 and 1.43 year, thus rendering this technology as an attractive option for energy and cost savings for domestic applications. © Sila Science.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Cited By (since 1996): 1 Export Date: 16 November 2012 Source: Scopus Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Mekhilef, S.; University of Malaya, Department of Electrical Engineering, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; email: References:, Available online as of October 2009 atZhiqiang, Y., Development of solar thermal systems in China (2005) Solar Energy Mat Solar Cells, 86, pp. 427-442; Omer, A.M., Overview of renewable energy sources in the Republic of the Sudan (2002) Energy Convers Manage, 27, pp. 523-547; Norton, B., Anatomy of a solar collector: Development in materials, components and efficiency improvement (2006) Refocus, 7, pp. 32-35; Budihardjo, I., Morrison, G.L., Performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters (2009) Solar Energy, 83, pp. 49-56; Morrison, G.L., Budihardjo, I., Behnia, M., Measurement and simulation of flow rate in a water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heater (2005) Solar Energy, 78, pp. 257-267; Redpath, D.A.G., Eames, P.C., Lo, S.N.G., Griffiths, P.W., Experimental investigation of natural convection heat exchange within a physical model of the manifold chamber of a thermosyphon heat-pipe evacuated tube solar water heater (2009) Solar Energy, 83, pp. 988-997; Shah, L.J., Furbo, S., Theoretical flow investigations of an all glass evacuated tubular collector (2007) Solar Energy, 81, pp. 822-828; Kim, Y., Seo, T., Thermal performances comparisons of the glass evacuated tube solar collectors with shapes of absorber tube (2007) Renew Energy, 32, pp. 772-795; Safari, A., Mekhilef, S., Simulation and hardware implementation of incremental conductance MPPT with direct control method using cuk converter (2011) IEEE Transact Ind Elect, 58, pp. 154-1161; Pillai, I.R., Baneijee, R., Methodology for estimation of potential for solar water heating in a target area (2007) Solar Energy, 81, pp. 162-172; Yohanis, Y.G., Popel, O., Frid, S.E., Norton, B., The annual number of days that solar heated water satisfies a specified demand temperature (2006) Solar Energy, 80, pp. 1021-1030; Ucar, A., Inalli, M., Thermal and economic comparisons of solar heating systems with seasonal storage used in building heating (2008) Renew Energy, 33, pp. 2532-2539; Omer, A.M., Solar water pumping clean water for Sudan rural areas (2001) Renew Energy, 24, pp. 245-258; Omer, A.M., Renewable energy resources for electricity generation in Sudan (2007) Renew Sustain Energy Rev, 11, pp. 1481-1497; (2010) Atmospheric science date center, ,, Available online as of April, at; Li, M., Wang, L.L., Investigation of evacuated tube heated by solar trough concentrating system (2006) Energy Convers Manage, 47, pp. 3591-3601; Wang, C.H., Chen, Y., Huang, J., Thermal and electrical mechanism of thermoelectric generation chip and its performances in solar energy thermal power system (2011) Energy Educ Sci Technol Part A, 28, pp. 331-338; Mahlia, T.M.I., Emissions from electricity generation in Malaysia (2002) Renew Energy, 2, pp. 293-300; Saidur, R., Atabani, A.E., Mekhilef, S., A review on electrical and thermal energy for industries (2011) Renew Sustain Energy Rev, 15, pp. 2073-2086; Rajamohan, P., Rajasekhar, R.V.J., Shanmugan, S., Ramanathan, K., Energy and economic evaluation of fixed focus type solar parabolic concentrator for community cooking applications (2010) Energy Educ Sci Technol Part A, 26, pp. 49-59; Ralegaonkar, R.V., Gupta, R., Application of passive solar architecture for intelligent building construction: A review (2010) Energy Educ Sci Technol Part A, 26, pp. 75-85; Ozbalta, T.G., Ozbalta, N., Theoretical and experimental analysis of the solar energy gain of transparent insulated external wall in climatic conditions of Izmir (2010) Energy Educ Sci Technol Part A, 25, pp. 69-86; Bugutekin, A., Effect of the collector diameter on solar chimney power plants (2011) Energy Educ Sci Technol Part A, 27, pp. 155-168; Yelmen, B., Ustuner, T., Ustuner, M., Determining the potential of solar energy and benefiting from this potential using photovoltaic system in Turkey (2011) Energy Educ Sci Technol Part A, 27, pp. 347-358; Saidur, R., Energy, economics and environmental analysis for chillers in office buildings (2010) Energy Educ Sci Technol Part A, 25, pp. 1-16; Mahlia, T.M.I., Saidur, R., Husnawan, M., Masjuki, H.H., Kalam, M.A., An approach to estimate the life-cycle cost of energy efficiency improvement of room air conditioners (2010) Energy Educ Sci Technol Part A, 26, pp. 1-11; Sevim, C., Rapid climate change problem and wind energy investments for Turkey (2010) Energy Educ Sci Technol Part A, 25, pp. 59-67; Akpinar, E.K., Akpinar, S., Modelling of weather characteristics and wind power density in Elazig-Turkey (2010) Energy Educ Sci Technol Part A, 25, pp. 45-57
Uncontrolled Keywords: Evacuated tubes, Solar water heater, Sudan, Techno-economic analysis, Domestic water heating, Economic benefits, Electric water heaters, Energy and cost, Flat plate, Hot water, Mass flow rate, Natural circulation, Operational requirements, Overall costs, Payback periods, Solar irradiation, Techno-economic studies, Cost benefit analysis, Costs, Energy utilization, Heating, Investments, Solar water heaters, Tubes (components), Economic analysis.
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Mr Jenal S
Date Deposited: 08 Feb 2013 01:54
Last Modified: 10 Oct 2019 02:58

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