Fully-integrated timers for ultra-low-power internet-of-things nodes-fundamentals and design techniques

Loo, Mikki How-Wen and Ramiah, Harikrishnan and Lei, Ka-Meng and Lim, Chee Cheow and Lai, Nai Shyan and Mak, Pui-In and Martins, Rui P. (2022) Fully-integrated timers for ultra-low-power internet-of-things nodes-fundamentals and design techniques. IEEE Access, 10. pp. 65936-65950. ISSN 2169-3536, DOI https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3183995.

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Driven by the momentum toward compact and low-power Internet-of-Things (IoT) systems, the research on fully-integrated and energy-efficient kHz-to-MHz timers increased explosively. This article examines recent publications on timers and classifies them into two major categories: open-loop-based and close-loop-based timers. Upon introducing the basic parameters for characterizing a timer, we perform an extensive investigation to gain insights into recent state-of-the-art works. We also discuss in detail the comparison between the two classes of timers. With the aid of the state-of-the-art, we present a comprehensive review from multiple perspectives, such as Energy Efficiency, Temperature Coefficient, Temperature Range, Figure-of-Merit, etc.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Research University (RU) Grant-Faculty Program [Grant No: GPF056B-2020], Science and Technology Development Fund, Macau Special Administrative Region, (FDCT) [Grant No: 0043/2020/A1 & SKL-AMSV(UM)-2020-2022 & MG004-2021]
Uncontrolled Keywords: Oscillators; Time-frequency analysis; Jitter; Phase noise; Clocks; Temperature distribution; Circuit stability; CMOS; Internet-of-Things (IoT); relaxation oscillator (RxO); Frequency-locked-loop (FLL); Allan deviation; Jitter; Phase noise; Figure-of-merit (FoM); Ultra-low-power; Wakeup timers
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering > Department of Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 18 Oct 2023 06:35
Last Modified: 18 Oct 2023 06:35
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/42096

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