An overview of organic contaminants in indoor dust, their health impact, geographical distribution and recent extraction/analysis methods

Gunathilake, Thennakoon M. Sampath U. and Ching, Yern Chee and Kadokami, Kiwao (2022) An overview of organic contaminants in indoor dust, their health impact, geographical distribution and recent extraction/analysis methods. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 44 (3). pp. 677-713. ISSN 0269-4042, DOI

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People spend a substantial proportion of their time indoors; therefore, exposure to contaminants in indoor dust is persistent and profuse. According to the findings of recent studies, contaminants such as flame retardants (FRs), organochlorines (OCs), and phthalate esters (PAEs) are more prevalent in indoor dust. The discrepancy in the geographical distribution of these chemicals indicates country-specific applications. However, many studies have revealed that chlorophosphates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate are frequently detected in indoor dust throughout the world. Although some chemicals (e.g., OCs) were banned/severely restricted decades ago, they have still been detected in indoor dust. These organic contaminants have shown clear evidence of carcinogenic, neurotoxic, immunogenic, and estrogenic activities. Recent extraction methods have shown their advantages, such as high recoveries, less solvent consumption, less extraction time and simplicity of use. The latest separation techniques such as two-dimensional gas/liquid chromatography, latest ionization techniques (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)), and modern techniques of mass spectrometry (e.g., tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), time-of-flight (TOF) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)) improve the detection limits, accuracy, reproducibility and simultaneous detection of organic contaminants. For future perspectives, it is suggested that the importance of the study of dust morphology for comprehensive risk analysis, introducing standard reference materials to strengthen the analytical methods, adopt common guidelines for comparison of research findings and the importance of dust analysis in the developing world since lack of records on the production and usage of hazardous substances. Such measures will help to evaluate the effectiveness of prevailing legislations and to set up new regulations.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Hitachi Scholarship Research Support Program 2019/2020, the University Malaya [Grant No: ST007-2019 & GPF002A-2019]
Uncontrolled Keywords: Indoor dust; Organic contaminants; Organochlorines; Flame retardants; Phthalate esters; Gas chromatography
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering > Department of Chemical Engineering
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 25 Apr 2022 06:59
Last Modified: 25 Apr 2022 06:59

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