Individual torrefaction parameter enhances characteristics of torrefied empty fruit bunches

Sukiran, Mohamad Azri and Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri and Abnisa, Faisal and Nasrin, Abu Bakar and Astimar, Abdul Aziz and Loh, Soh Kheang (2021) Individual torrefaction parameter enhances characteristics of torrefied empty fruit bunches. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 11 (2, SI). pp. 461-472. ISSN 2190-6815, DOI

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Empty fruit bunches (EFB) have great potential to be used as a renewable fuel. Its current low rate of utilization due to high moisture content and low calorific value (CV) can be overcome via a thermal pretreatment, i.e., torrefaction. This study investigated the effects of torrefaction temperature (225, 250, 275, and 300 degrees C), residence time (20, 40, and 60 min) and particle size (< 106, 106-250, and 500-700 mu m) on EFB's final product distribution and their characteristics in a fixed bed. Structural and thermal properties of the torrefied EFB at different temperatures were determined. Optimum temperature to produce torrefied EFB was identified at 225 degrees C, while optimum residence time and particle size were 20 min and 500-700 mu m, respectively, for a maximum mass (90.3 wt.%) and energy (98.8%) yields. The mass and energy yields of torrefied EFB decreased with increasing temperature and residence time, but increased with increasing particle size of EFB. It was found that the torrefaction temperature had the greatest influence on mass and energy yields of torrefied EFB compared with residence time and particle size. In addition, the study revealed that moisture content had reduced, and carbon content increased with an increasing torrefaction temperature, but those of the O/C ratio, and H and O contents decreased, resulting in an improved CV up to 24.6 MJ kg(-1)from its raw form of 17.6 MJ kg(-1). The findings obtained are useful for future upscaling of EFB-based solid fuel production.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Universiti Malaya [PG097-2016A], Public Service Department, Malaysia (JPA)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Torrefaction; Empty fruit bunches; Mass yield; Calorific value; Solid fuel
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering > Department of Chemical Engineering
Depositing User: Ms Zaharah Ramly
Date Deposited: 31 Jul 2022 11:43
Last Modified: 31 Jul 2022 11:43

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