Removal of fluoride using quaternized palm kernel shell as adsorbents: Equilibrium isotherms and kinetics studies

Bakar, Ayu Haslija Abu and Koay, Yin Shin and Ching, Yern Chee and Abdullah, Luqman Chuah and Choong, Thomas S.Y. and Alkhatib, Ma'an and Mobarekeh, Mohsen Nourouzi and Zahri, Nur Amirah Mohd (2016) Removal of fluoride using quaternized palm kernel shell as adsorbents: Equilibrium isotherms and kinetics studies. BioResources, 11 (2). pp. 4485-4511. ISSN 1930-2126, DOI

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Palm kernel shell (PKS) core fibers, an agricultural waste, were chemically modified using N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (CHMAC) as a quaternizing agent. The potential of quaternized palm kernel shell (QPKS) as an adsorbent for fluoride in an aqueous solution was then studied. The quaternized palm kernel shell (QPKS) core fibers were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of various factors on the fluoride sequestration was also investigated. The results showed that with an increase in the adsorbent amount and contact time, the efficiency of fluoride removal was improved. The maximum fluoride uptake was obtained at pH 3 and a contact time of 4 h. The adsorption behavior was further investigated using equilibrium isotherms and kinetics studies. The results from these studies fit well into Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Sips isotherm's with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9716. The maximum fluoride removal was 63%. For kinetics studies, the pseudo-second order was the best fit for fluoride, with an R2 of 0.999. These results suggest that QPKS has the potential to serve as a low-cost adsorbent for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Universiti Putra Malaysia: Research University Grant Scheme (RUGS) Project no: 05-02-12-2203RU, Ministry of Education Malaysia: High Impact Research MoE Grant: UM.C/625/1/HIR/MoE/52 and RU022A-2014
Uncontrolled Keywords: Fluoride removal; Quartenized palm kernel shells; Adsorption; Isotherms; Kinetics
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering > Department of Chemical Engineering
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 05 Dec 2017 02:53
Last Modified: 06 Dec 2019 05:58

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