Automated diagnosis of diabetes using entropies and diabetic index

Acharya, U.R. and Fujita, H. and Bhat, S. and Koh, J.E.W. and Adam, M. and Ghista, D.N. and Sudarshan, V.K. and Chua, K.P. and Chua, K.C. and Molinari, F. and Ng, E.Y.K. and Tan, R.S. (2016) Automated diagnosis of diabetes using entropies and diabetic index. Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology (jmmb), 16 (01). p. 1640008. ISSN 0219-5194, DOI

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Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder that hampers the body's energy absorption capacity from the food. It is either caused by pancreatic malfunctioning or the body cells being inactive to insulin production. Prolonged diabetes results in severe complications, such as retinopathy, neuropathy, cardiomyopathy and cardiovascular diseases. DM is an incurable disorder. Thus, diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes is essential to prevent the body organs from severe damage. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) signal processing can be used as one of the methods for the diagnosis of DM. Our paper introduces a noninvasive technique of automated diabetic diagnosis using HRV signals. The R-R interval signals are decomposed using Shearlet transforms integrated with Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), and their characteristic features are extracted by using Shannon's, Renyi's, Kapur entropies, energy and Higher Order Spectra (HOS). Then, Locality Sensitive Discriminant Analysis (LSDA) is employed to remove insignificant features and reduce the number of employed features. These redundant features are eliminated by using six feature selection algorithms: Student's t-test, Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC), Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Bhattacharyya distance, Information entropy and Fuzzy Max-Relevance and Min-Redundancy (MRMR). This step is followed by classification of normal and diabetic signals using different classifiers, such as discriminant classifiers, Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), Naïve Bayes (NB), Fuzzy Sugeno (FSC), Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), AdaBoost and k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) classifier. In these classifiers, the selected features are employed to distinguish diabetic signals from normal signals. These classifiers are trained and then tested to validate their accuracy to make accurate diagnosis. The FSC classifier is shown to have the highest (100%) accuracy. Nevertheless, we go one step further in formulating another novel classifier in the form of the diabetic index, and have shown how distinctly it is able to separate diabetic signals from normal signals.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Shearlet transforms; Kapur entropy; GMM; AdaBoost classifier; Diabetic index
Subjects: R Medicine
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 23 Oct 2017 03:33
Last Modified: 23 Oct 2017 03:33

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