Acceptable load carriage for primary school girls

Razali, R. and Abu Osman, Noor Azuan and Shasmin, H.N. and Usman, J. and Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar (2006) Acceptable load carriage for primary school girls. European Journal of Scientific Research, 15 (3). pp. 396-403. ISSN 1450216X

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Abstract

Randomized six primary school girls aged between 9 to 10 years old completed this study at the Motion Analysis Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Malaya, Malaysia. Three different loads were used (10, 15 and 20 of their body weight) and 0 was used as control during level walking. The data obtained, both kinetics and kinematics, were analyzed using the Peak Motus® 7.2.4 software from PEAK Performance Technologies® and SPSSO version 12.0 software. The results indicated that the peak ground reaction forces increased with increasing backpack loads. The hip and knee flexion/extension increased as the loads increased. The stride length and walking speed decreased, while the cadence showed no significant difference (P>0.05). If the trunk angle is taken as the criterion to determine acceptable backpack loads for children, these loads should not exceed 10 of the children's body weight. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2006.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Cited By (since 1996):1 Export Date: 24 February 2014 Source: Scopus Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Razali, R.; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia References: Looi, E., Cheah, R., Tan, V., Overloaded schoolbags The Star, , 7 January; The weight of school bags and its relation to spinal deformity (1988), Hong Kong Society for Child Health and Development Hong Kong: The Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Hong Kong, The Duchess of Kent Children's HospitalKinoshita, H., Effects of different loads and carrying systems on selected biomechanical parameters describing walking gait (1985) Ergonomics, 28, pp. 1347-1362; Goh, J.H., Thambyah, A., Bose, K., Effects of varying backpack loads on peak forces in the lumbosacral spine during walking (1998) Clinical Biomechanics, 13 (SI), pp. S26-S31; Li, J.X., Hong, Y., Age difference in trunk kinematics during walking with different backpack weights in 6 to 12 year old children (2004)La Fiandra, M., Harman, E., The distribution of forces between the upper and lower back during load carriage (2004) Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., pp. 460-467; Hong, Y., Cheung, C.K., Gait and posture responses to backpack load during level walking in children (2003), 17, pp. 28-33Chow, D., Kwok, M., Au-Yang, A., Holmes, A., Cheng, J., Fiona, Wong, M.S., The effect of backpack load on the gait of normal adolescent girls (2005) Ergonomics, 48, pp. 642-656; Pascoe, D.D., Pascoe, D.E., Wang, Y.T., Shim, D.M., Influence of carrying book bags on gait cycle and posture of youths Ergonomics, 40 (6), pp. 631-641; Mohd, S.B., Tamrin, Hamzah, R., Are your children prone to low back pain? (2003) Medic Health Putra, 5, p. 4; Spivack, B.S., Evaluation and management of gait disorders (1995), pp. 13-19. , Marcel Dekker, IncLegg, S., Cruz, C., Chaikumarn, M., Kumar, R., Efficacy of subjective perceptual methods in comparing between single and double strap backpacks (2002) Human Resource Management; Winter, D.A., (1991) The Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Gait: Normal, Elderly and Pathological, , 2nd ed. Waterloo: University of Waterloo; La Fiandra, M., Wagenaar, R.C., Holt, K.G., Obusek, J.P., How do load carriage and walking speed influence trunk coordination and stride parameters (2003) Journal of Biomechanics, 36, pp. 87-95; Nottrodt, J.W., Manley, P., Acceptable loads and locomotor patterns selected in different carriage methods (1989) Ergonomics, 32 (8), pp. 945-957; Mackenzie, W.G., Sampath, J.S., Kruse, R.W., Neiss, J.S., Backpacks in children (2003) Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 409, pp. 78-84; Hong, Y., Brueggemann, G., Changes of gait pattern in 10 years old children during treadmill walking with increasing loads (2000) Gait and Posture, 11, pp. 245-259; Sander, M., Weight of school bags in a Freibury elementary school: Recommendations to parents and teachers (1979) Offentliche Gesundheitswesen, 41, pp. 251-253
Uncontrolled Keywords: Backpack, Gait, Ground reaction forces, Kinematics, Kinetics, Trunk.
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Mr Jenal S
Date Deposited: 09 Apr 2014 01:46
Last Modified: 07 Feb 2019 08:34
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/9471

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