Optimisation of the process variables in production of activated carbon by microwave heating

Kundu, A. and Sen Gupta, B. and Hashim, M.A. and Sahu, J.N. and Mujaware, M. and Redzwan, G. (2015) Optimisation of the process variables in production of activated carbon by microwave heating. RSC Advances, 5 (45). pp. 35899-35908. ISSN 2046-2069

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Abstract

This study aims to investigate the optimal operating conditions in order to obtain cost effective production of activated carbon (AC) from palm kernel shell (PKS) by microwave heating. Interactions among the independent variables, namely irradiation time (T), microwave power (W), impregnation ratio between impregnating substances and PKS, and the concentration of impregnating substance (sulphuric acid) were considered for optimising the process parameters during the production of AC, aided by Central Composite Design. The optimum conditions for the independent process variables were 11.02 minutes of irradiation time, microwave power of 676 W and impregnation ratio of 0.68. The AC produced in this work had a surface area of 1011 m(2) g(-1) with high porosity as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Zinc was used to verify the potential of AC as an adsorbent. Zinc removal at the optimum conditions was found to be 13.72 mg g(-1). Such a Zn removal value is comparable with the earlier work of other researchers who used a conventional way of producing the AC. It is believed that microwave technology can be used for the production of AC in a short time with high energy efficiency, e.g., 11 minutes against 2-5 hours of reactivation for conventional methods.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ISI Document Delivery No.: CG9PK Times Cited: 0 Cited Reference Count: 42 Cited References: Abnisa F, 2011, BIOMASS BIOENERG, V35, P3604, DOI 10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.05.011 Acharya J, 2009, CHEM ENG J, V149, P249, DOI 10.1016/j.cej.2008.10.029 Ahmad MA, 2010, CHEM ENG J, V165, P883, DOI 10.1016/j.cej.2010.10.049 Arulkumar M, 2012, CHEM ENG J, V185, P178, DOI 10.1016/j.cej.2012.01.071 Baccar R, 2009, J HAZARD MATER, V162, P1522, DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.041 Bayraktar E, 2001, PROCESS BIOCHEM, V37, P169, DOI 10.1016/S0032-9592(01)00192-3 Bhatnagar A, 2013, CHEM ENG J, V219, P499, DOI 10.1016/j.cej.2012.12.038 Carmody O, 2007, SURF SCI, V601, P2066, DOI 10.1016/j.susc.2007.03.004 Deng H, 2010, J HAZARD MATER, V182, P217, DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.06.018 Depci T, 2012, CHEM ENG J, V200, P224, DOI 10.1016/j.cej.2012.06.077 Dural MU, 2011, CHEM ENG J, V168, P77, DOI 10.1016/j.cej.2010.12.038 El-Hendawy ANA, 2008, J ANAL APPL PYROL, V82, P272, DOI 10.1016/j.jaap.2008.04.006 Foo KY, 2012, BIORESOURCE TECHNOL, V103, P398, DOI 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.116 Gupta VK, 2003, IND ENG CHEM RES, V42, P6619, DOI 10.1021/ie0303146 Hesas RH, 2013, BIORESOURCES, V8, P2950 Hoseinzadeh Hesas R., 2013, CHEM ENG RES DES, V91, P2447 Hsu LY, 2000, FUEL PROCESS TECHNOL, V64, P155, DOI 10.1016/S0378-3820(00)00071-0 Jagtoyen M, 1998, CARBON, V36, P1085, DOI 10.1016/S0008-6223(98)00082-7 Kaith BS, 2014, RSC ADV, V4, P40339, DOI 10.1039/c4ra05300a Kalavathy H, 2010, COLLOID SURFACE B, V78, P291, DOI 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2010.03.014 Karacan F, 2007, APPL THERM ENG, V27, P1212, DOI 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2006.02.046 Lu CS, 2006, IND ENG CHEM RES, V45, P2850, DOI 10.1021/ie051206h Mahamadi C, 2010, BIORESOURCE TECHNOL, V101, P859, DOI 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.097 Marsh H, 2006, ACTIVATED CARBON, P1 Martins RJE, 2004, WATER RES, V38, P693, DOI 10.1016/j.watres.2003.10.013 Mohammad M, 2010, J HAZARD MATER, V179, P363, DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.03.014 Montgomery D. C., 1984, DESIGN ANAL EXPT Nabais JMV, 2011, FUEL PROCESS TECHNOL, V92, P234, DOI 10.1016/j.fuproc.2010.03.024 Njoku VO, 2014, CHEM ENG J, V250, P198, DOI 10.1016/j.cej.2014.03.115 Rao MM, 2009, J HAZARD MATER, V166, P1006, DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.12.002 Rao MM, 2008, WASTE MANAGE, V28, P849, DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2007.01.017 Russell AD, 2012, RSC ADV, V2, P6756, DOI 10.1039/c2ra20859h San Miguel G, 2003, CARBON, V41, P1009, DOI 10.1016/S0008-6223(02)00449-9 Saputra E, 2013, RSC ADV, V3, P21905, DOI 10.1039/c3ra42455c Sen R, 2004, BIOCHEM ENG J, V21, P141, DOI 10.1016/j.bej.2004.06.006 Tay T, 2009, J HAZARD MATER, V165, P481, DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.10.011 Thostenson ET, 1999, COMPOS PART A-APPL S, V30, P1055, DOI 10.1016/S1359-835X(99)00020-2 Tobias P., 2012, PROCESS IMPROVEMENT, V2013 Verseput R., 2014, SELECTING RIGHT CENT Xia H.-y., 2007, CHEM ENG, V1 Xin-Hui D, 2011, FUEL PROCESS TECHNOL, V92, P394, DOI 10.1016/j.fuproc.2010.09.033 Yeung PT, 2014, RSC ADV, V4, P38839, DOI 10.1039/c4ra05082g Kundu, Anirban Sen Gupta, Bhaskar Hashim, M. A. Sahu, J. N. Mujaware, Mubarak Redzwan, Ghufran REDZWAN, GHUFRAN/B-8542-2010; Engineering, Faculty /I-7935-2015 Engineering, Faculty /0000-0002-4848-7052 University of Malaya UM.C/HIR/MOHE/ENG/13; University of Malaya (IPPP University of Malaya) PG040-2012B The authors are grateful to University of Malaya (Project no. UM.C/HIR/MOHE/ENG/13 and IPPP University of Malaya, project no. PG040-2012B) for providing the fund for the research work. 0 ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY CAMBRIDGE RSC ADV
Uncontrolled Keywords: Response-surface methodology, aqueous-solution, chemical activation, metal-ions, removal, adsorption, waste, zinc, water, lead,
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Mr Jenal S
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2016 01:11
Last Modified: 04 Apr 2016 01:11
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/15724

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