Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide

Sazwi, N.N. and Nalina, T. and Rahim, Z.H.A. (2013) Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13. ISSN 1472-6882, DOI

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Background: Betel quid chewing is a popular habit in Southeast Asia. It is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). The correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined. Methods: Five samples (betel leaf, areca nut, gambir, betel quid and betel quid containing calcium hydroxide) were extracted in deionized distilled water for 12 hours at 37 degrees C. Antioxidant activities were evaluated for radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay, ferric reducing activity using FRAP assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity using FTC assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Phenolic composition was analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Cytoprotective activity towards human gingival fibroblast cells was examined using MTT assay. Results: Among the ingredients of betel quid, gambir demonstrated the highest antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 = 6.4 +/- 0.8 mu g/mL, FRAP - 5717.8 +/- 537.6 mu mol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 1142.5 +/- 106.8 mu g TAE/mg) and cytoprotective (100.1 +/- 4.6%) activities. Betel quid when compared with betel quid containing calcium hydroxide has higher antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 = 59.4 +/- 4.4 mu g/mL, FRAP - 1022.2 +/- 235.7 mu mol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 140.0 +/- 22.3 mu g TAE/mg), and cytoprotective (113.5 +/- 15.9%) activities. However, all of the five samples showed good lipid peroxidation inhibition compared to vitamin E. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of quinic acid as the major compound of gambir and betel quid. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging (r = 0.972), reducing power (r = 0.981) and cytoprotective activity (r = 0.682). Conclusions: The betel quid has higher TPC, and antioxidant and cytoprotective activities than betel quid with calcium hydroxide. The quinic acid in betel quid may play an important role in the oral health protection.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2013 Nur Sazwi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Piper betle; Areca catechu; Uncaria gambir; Calcium hydroxide; Betel quid; Antioxidant; Cytoprotective; LC-MS/MS
Subjects: R Medicine > RK Dentistry
Divisions: Faculty of Dentistry > Dept of Oral Biology
Depositing User: Mr Ahmad Azwan Azman
Date Deposited: 24 Jan 2014 07:22
Last Modified: 24 Jan 2014 07:22

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