Economic costs of obesity: A systematic review

Nagi, Mouaddh Abdulmalik and Ahmed, Hanan and Rezq, Mustafa Ali Ali and Sangroongruangsri, Sermsiri and Chaikledkaew, Usa and Almalki, Ziyad and Thavorncharoensap, Montarat (2024) Economic costs of obesity: A systematic review. International Journal of Obesity, 48 (1). 33 – 43. ISSN 0307-0565, DOI

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Introduction: Obesity is a growing public health problem leading to substantial economic impact. This study aimed to summarize the economic impact of obesity and to critically analyze the methods used in the cost-of-illness (COI) studies on obesity. Methods: We conducted systematic search in PubMed and Scopus from September 1, 2016, to July 22, 2022. Original COI studies estimating the economic cost of obesity and/or overweight in at least one country, published in English were included. To facilitate the comparison of estimates across countries, we converted the cost estimates of different years to 2022 purchasing power parity (PPP) values using each country’s consumer price index (CPI) and PPP conversion rate. Results: Nineteen studies were included. All studies employed a prevalence-based approach using Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) methodology. About half of the included studies (53) were conducted in high-income countries while the others (47) were conducted in middle-income countries. The economic burden of obesity ranged between PPP 15 million in Brazil to PPP 126 billion in the USA, in the year 2022. Direct medical costs accounted for 0.7 to 17.8 of the health system expenditure. Furthermore, the total costs of obesity ranged from 0.05 to 2.42 of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). Of the seven studies that estimated both direct and indirect costs, indirect costs accounted for the largest portion of five studies. Nevertheless, a variety in methodology across studies was identified. The number of co-morbidities included in the analysis varied across studies. Conclusions: Although there was a variety of methodologies across studies, consistent evidence indicated that the economic burden of obesity was substantial. Obesity prevention and control should be a public health priority, especially among countries with high prevalence of obesity. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Mahidol University, Health Technology Assessment international
Uncontrolled Keywords: Comorbidity; Cost of illness; Health care costs; Humans; Obesity; Prevalence; Comorbidity; Consumer price index; Cost of illness; Disease burden; Gross national product; Health care cost; High income country; Human; Medline; Middle income country; Obesity; Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses; Prevalence; Purchasing power; Review; Scopus; Systematic Review; United States; Health care cost; Obesity
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine > Social & Preventive Medicine
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 24 Apr 2024 03:02
Last Modified: 24 Apr 2024 03:02

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