Children's exposure to PM2.5 and its chemical constituents in indoor and outdoor schools urban environment

Othman, Murnira and Latif, Mohd Talib and Naim, Nur Nadrah Mohd and Zain, Sharifah Mazrah Sayed Mohamed and Khan, Md Firoz and Sahani, Mazrura and Wahab, Muhammad Ikram A. and Sofwan, Nurzawani Md and Abd Hamid, Haris Hafizal and Mohamed, Ahmad Fariz (2022) Children's exposure to PM2.5 and its chemical constituents in indoor and outdoor schools urban environment. Atmospheric Environment, 273. ISSN 1352-2310, DOI

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A school environment with good indoor air quality contributes to the children's performance and learning efficacy. This study aims to determine indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations in school environments and its possible sources and exposure levels. Daily measurements of PM2.5 samples were collected for 24 h using low volume samplers from 19 primary schools in densely populated areas of Kuala Lumpur. Chemical species of the PM2.5 were determined for trace metals, water soluble inorganic ions (WSII) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for both indoor and outdoor. The results showed that classroom indoor PM2.5 levels had an average concentration of 42.0 +/- 23.1 mu g m(-3), which was not much different from outdoor levels, which have an average concentration of 39.9 +/- 21.9 mu g m(-3). However, there was a significant difference between indoor and outdoor chemical constituents for Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Na+, Bb]F and Ba]P (p < 0.05). The major components of PM2.5 mass indoors and outdoors were SO42-(3.9% and 3.6%) and NO3- (2.4% and 2.4%), respectively. The results from Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) identified building materials (34%) as the major source for indoors, while secondary pollutants (38%) were identified as the major source for outdoors. Hazard quotient (HQ) values for all metals were < 1 indicated low non-carcinogenic risk to school children, while the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) values were in the sequence of Cr > Ni > Cd > Pb. Overall, PM2.5 concentrations impacted the air quality in schools and posed health risks to children, which means measures need to be taken to reduce PM2.5 pollution in school environments.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF) Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research (MHESR) [Grant No: FRGS/1/2015/WAB03/UKM/01/1], UNICEF [ Grant No: NN-2020-041]
Uncontrolled Keywords: School children; Chemical composition; Indoor; Outdoor; Urban environment
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 06 Sep 2023 03:44
Last Modified: 06 Sep 2023 03:44

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