Paediatric upper limb fracture healing time prediction using a machine learning approach

Lau, Chia Fong and Malek, Sorayya and Gunalan, Roshan and Chee, W. H. and Saw, A. and Aziz, Firdaus (2022) Paediatric upper limb fracture healing time prediction using a machine learning approach. ALll Life, 15 (1). pp. 490-499. ISSN 2689-5293, DOI

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To analyse and predict the healing time of upper limb fractures in children, machine learning algorithms were used. Paediatric orthopaedic data was obtained from the University Malaya Medical Centre. The data set includes radiographs of upper limb fractures involving the radius, ulna, and humerus in children under the age of twelve, with ages recorded from the date and time of initial injury. Inputs assessment included: age, gender, bone type, the number of bones involved, fracture type, angulation and the distance of the fracture. Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Regression (SVR) algorithms were used to predict and identify variables associated with fracture healing time. Self Organizing Maps was then used for visualization and ordination of factors associated with healing time. Algorithms performance was measured using root mean square error (RMSE). A significant determinant in fracture healing includes age, bone part, fracture angulation, and distance. The Wilcoxon signed ranked test reported there is a significant difference between the prediction result of the SVR model (RMSE = 2.56) and the RF model (RMSE = 2.66). Predicting healing time can be used in the treatment process and follow up period for general practitioners and medical officers. The algorithm is deployed online at

Item Type: Article
Funders: Universiti Malaya (GPF013B-2018)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Upper limb; Paediatric orthopaedic; Support vector regression; Random forest; Self-organising maps; Machine learning
Subjects: R Medicine
R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine > Orthopaedic Surgery Department
Faculty of Science > Institute of Biological Sciences
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 25 Aug 2023 01:43
Last Modified: 25 Aug 2023 01:43

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