The influence of probiotic fermentation on the active compounds and bioactivities of walnut flowers

Ru, Yue-Rong and Wang, Zhen-Xing and Li, Ya-Jing and Kan, Huan and Kong, Kin-Weng and Zhang, Xue-Chun (2022) The influence of probiotic fermentation on the active compounds and bioactivities of walnut flowers. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 46 (4, SI). ISSN 0145-8884, DOI

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In this study, the walnut flowers were fermented using five different probiotics, including two Lactobacillus plantarum, one Lactobacillus bulgaricus, one Lactobacillus casei, and one Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory abilities of walnut flowers during fermentation processes were evaluated. The results showed that all the active compounds and bioactivities of the walnut flowers were significantly decreased after 7 days of fermentation, whereas a short-term fermentation (1-3 days) enhanced their bioactivities. Compared to the unfermented sample, L. plantarum (ATCC 8014) and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 53013) increased the ABTS (1.22 and 1.30 times higher) and DPPH radical scavenging activities (up to 1.23 and 1.04 times), respectively. L. plantarum (SWFU D16), L. plantarum (ATCC 8014), and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 53013) improved the ferric reducing antioxidant power which was 110.98%, 133.16%, and 104.76% of the unfermented sample. All five probiotics promoted the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory ability of walnut flowers (maximum 2.18-fold increase). Three phenolic acids and five flavonoids in the fermentation broth were identified by HPLC, where catechin, epicatechin, and catechin gallate were the dominant components. HPLC results demonstrated that these compounds were degraded and transformed in varying degrees under the effects of probiotics. Taken together, a short-term probiotic fermentation could change the active compounds of the walnut flowers and improve their bioactivities. L. plantarum (ATCC 8014) and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 334) are suggested as suitable strains in producing the fermented walnut flowers. The research findings could further support the development and utilization of walnut flowers as a fermented functional food. Practical applications Walnut flowers have been used as fermented food in southwestern China, but their active components and functional activities during fermentation processes are still unclear. This study found that different probiotic fermentation exerted a strong and varied influence on the chemical composition and biological activities of the walnut flowers. A short-term fermentation has significantly improved their antioxidant capacities and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory abilities, whereas the longer period of fermentation, caused a significant loss of both their active compounds and bioactivities. These findings are useful as a reference for the manufacturers of fermented walnut flowers in selecting suitable strains and fermentation time for their products.

Item Type: Article
Funders: National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) [Grant No: 1760440], Major Special Plan of Science and Technology of Yunnan Province [Grant No: 2018ZG004]
Uncontrolled Keywords: Active compounds; Antioxidant activity; Fermentation; Probiotic; Walnut flower; Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory ability
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 07 Oct 2023 04:55
Last Modified: 07 Oct 2023 04:55

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