A state-of-the-art review of the fabrication and characteristics of titanium and its alloys for biomedical applications

Sarraf, Masoud and Rezvani Ghomi, Erfan and Alipour, Saeid and Ramakrishna, Seeram and Sukiman, Nazatul Liana (2022) A state-of-the-art review of the fabrication and characteristics of titanium and its alloys for biomedical applications. Bio-Design and Manufacturing, 5 (2). pp. 371-395. ISSN 2096-5524, DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s42242-021-00170-3.

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Commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys have been among the most commonly used materials for biomedical applications since the 1950s. Due to the excellent mechanical tribological properties, corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, and antibacterial properties of titanium, it is getting much attention as a biomaterial for implants. Furthermore, titanium promotes osseointegration without any additional adhesives by physically bonding with the living bone at the implant site. These properties are crucial for producing high-strength metallic alloys for biomedical applications. Titanium alloys are manufactured into the three types of alpha, beta, and alpha + beta. The scientific and clinical understanding of titanium and its potential applications, especially in the biomedical field, are still in the early stages. This review aims to establish a credible platform for the current and future roles of titanium in biomedicine. We first explore the developmental history of titanium. Then, we review the recent advancement of the utility of titanium in diverse biomedical areas, its functional properties, mechanisms of biocompatibility, host tissue responses, and various relevant antimicrobial strategies. Future research will be directed toward advanced manufacturing technologies, such as powder-based additive manufacturing, electron beam melting and laser melting deposition, as well as analyzing the effects of alloying elements on the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties of titanium. Moreover, the role of titania nanotubes in regenerative medicine and nanomedicine applications, such as localized drug delivery system, immunomodulatory agents, antibacterial agents, and hemocompatibility, is investigated, and the paper concludes with the future outlook of titanium alloys as biomaterials.

Item Type: Article
Funders: University of Malaya (UM) Research Grant (Grant No: FRGS/1/2020/TK0/UM/02/40)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Titanium and titanium alloys; Biomedical application; Functional properties; Biocompatibility; Antibacterial activity; Advanced manufacturing
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering > Department of Mechanical Engineering
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 09 Oct 2023 08:13
Last Modified: 09 Oct 2023 08:13
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/42420

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