Extracellular prostaglandins E1 and E2 and inflammatory cytokines are regulated by the senescence program in potentially premalignant oral keratinocytes

Karen-Ng, Lee Peng and Ahmad, Usama Sharif and Gomes, Luis and Hunter, Keith David and Wan, Hong and Hagi-Pavli, Eleni and Parkinson, Eric Kenneth (2022) Extracellular prostaglandins E1 and E2 and inflammatory cytokines are regulated by the senescence program in potentially premalignant oral keratinocytes. Cancers, 14 (11). ISSN 2072-6694, DOI https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14112636.

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Simple Summary The early treatment of oral cancer is a high priority, as improvements in this area could lead to greater cure rates and reduced disability due to extensive surgery. Oral cancer is very difficult to detect in over 70% of cases as it develops unseen until quite advanced, sometimes rapidly. It has become apparent that there are at least two types of epithelial cells (keratinocytes) found in oral tissue on the road to cancer (premalignant). One type secretes molecules called prostaglandins but the other does not and the former may stimulate the latter to progress to malignancy, either by stimulating their proliferation or encouraging the influx of blood vessels to feed them. Additionally, we have identified regulators of prostaglandin secretion in premalignant oral cells that could be targeted in future therapies, such as inducers of cellular senescence, drugs which kill senescent cells (senolytics), steroid metabolism, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Potentially pre-malignant oral lesions (PPOLs) are composed of keratinocytes that are either mortal (MPPOL) or immortal (IPPOL) in vitro. We report here that MPPOL, but not generally IPPOL, keratinocytes upregulate various extracellular tumor-promoting cytokines (interleukins 6 and 8) and prostaglandins E1 (ePGE1) and E2 (ePGE2) relative to normal oral keratinocytes (NOKs). ePGE upregulation in MPPOL was independent of PGE receptor status and was associated with some but not all markers of cellular senescence. Nevertheless, ePGE upregulation was dependent on the senescence program, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and was partially regulated by hydrocortisone. Following senescence in the absence of p16(INK4A), ePGEs accumulated in parallel with a subset of tumor promoting cytokine and metalloproteinase (MMP) transcripts, all of which were ablated by ectopic telomerase. Surprisingly, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) function was not required for ePGE upregulation and was increased in expression in IPPOL keratinocytes in line with its recently reported role in telomerase function. Only ePGE1 was dependent on p53 function, suggesting that ePGEs 1 and 2 are regulated differently in oral keratinocytes. We show here that ePGE2 stimulates IPPOL keratinocyte proliferation in vitro. Therefore, we propose that MPPOL keratinocytes promote the progression of IPPOL to oral SCC in a pre-cancerous field by supplying PGEs, interleukins and MMPs in a paracrine manner. Our results suggest that the therapeutic targeting of COX-2 might be enhanced by strategies that target keratinocyte senescence.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Malaysian Ministry of Education
Uncontrolled Keywords: oral; pre-malignancy; keratinocyte; cancer; senescence; p53; prostaglandin; p38 mitogen-activated kinase; cyclo-oxygenase; ataxia telangiectasia mutated; telomerase
Subjects: R Medicine > RK Dentistry
Divisions: Faculty of Dentistry
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 19 Oct 2023 06:56
Last Modified: 19 Oct 2023 06:56
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/42140

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