Three days compared to one day per week of self-monitoring of blood glucose in mild gestational diabetes: A randomized trial

Hong, Jesrine Gek Shan and Noor, Ahmad Firdzaus Mohd and Tan, Peng Chiong (2022) Three days compared to one day per week of self-monitoring of blood glucose in mild gestational diabetes: A randomized trial. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11 (13). ISSN 2077-0383, DOI

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Background: The International Diabetes Federation estimates that 16.2% of livebirths in 2017 were affected by hyperglycemia in pregnancy, with 85.1% due to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Daily blood glucose monitoring compared with alternate day testing in mild GDM is associated with similar pregnancy outcomes. Data are sparse on the ideal frequency for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in mild GDM for glycemic control. A higher HbA1c at late pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to evaluate three days compared to one day per week of four-point self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) controlled by lifestyle changes for glycemic control. Methods: This randomized trial was conducted from February-December 2018. A total of 106 women with lifestyle-controlled GDM were randomized to three days (SMBG3) or one day (SMBG1) per week of four-point (fasting and two-hours post-meal) SMBG. The primary outcome was the change in the HbA1c level at recruitment and 36-weeks gestation within and across trial arms. The student t-test was used for between-arm analyses and a paired t-test for within-arm analyses. Results: The HbA1c level through pregnancy increased significantly in both trial arms: mean increase of 0.21% +/- 0.26%, p < 0.001 (SMBG3), and 0.19% +/- 0.24%, p < 0.001 (SMBG1), but the 0.02% difference across trial arms was not significant (p = 0.79). Maternal weight gain (3.1 +/- 2.1 kg vs. 3.3 +/- 3.0 kg, p = 0.72), cesarean delivery (24/52 (48%) vs. 23/53 (43%), RR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.69-1.62, p = 0.77), neonatal birthweight (3.1 +/- 0.4 kg vs. 3.0 +/- 0.4 kg, p = 0.53) and neonatal intensive care unit admission (4/52 (8%) vs. 3/53 (6%), RR 1.36, 95% CI: 0.32-5.78, p = 0.68) were not significantly different for SMBG3 vs. SMBG1, respectively. Other maternal and neonatal secondary outcomes were not significantly different. Conclusion: In mild GDM, three days compared to one day per week showed a similar HbA1c levels change at 36-weeks gestation. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were also not significantly different. Less frequent monitoring of SMBG as a standard of care in mild GDM deserves further study and consideration.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Universiti Malaya (Grant No: UMSCOG/RF00082017/01)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Gestational diabetes; HbA1c; Blood sugar profile; Self-monitoring blood glucose; Birthweight; Weight gain
Subjects: R Medicine > RG Gynecology and obstetrics
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine > Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department
Universiti Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 19 Oct 2023 09:11
Last Modified: 19 Oct 2023 09:11

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