Outcomes of neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia in a non-ECMO center in a middle-income country: A retrospective cohort study

Lum, Lucy Chai See and Ramanujam, Tindivanum Muthurangam and Yik, Yee Ian and Lee, Mei Ling and Chuah, Soo Lin and Breen, Emer and Zainal-Abidin, Anis Siham and Singaravel, Srihari and Thambidorai, Conjeevaram Rajendrarao and de Bruyne, Jessie Anne and Nathan, Anna Marie and Thavagnanam, Surendran and Eg, Kah Peng and Chan, Lucy and Abdel-Latif, Mohamed E. and Gan, Chin Seng (2022) Outcomes of neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia in a non-ECMO center in a middle-income country: A retrospective cohort study. BMC Pediatrics, 22 (1). ISSN 1471-2431, DOI https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-022-03453-5.

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Background: Most studies examining survival of neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are in high-income countries. We aimed to describe the management, survival to hospital discharge rate, and factors associated with survival of neonates with unilateral CDH in a middle-income country. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical notes of neonates with unilateral CDH admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a tertiary referral center over a 15-year period, from 2003-2017. We described the newborns' respiratory care pathways and then compared baseline demographic, hemodynamic, and respiratory indicators between survivors and non-survivors. The primary outcome measure was survival to hospital discharge. Results: Altogether, 120 neonates were included with 43.3% (52/120) diagnosed antenatally. Stabilization occurred in 38.3% (46/120) with conventional ventilation, 13.3% (16/120) with high-frequency intermittent positive-pressure ventilation, and 22.5% (27/120) with high frequency oscillatory ventilation. Surgical repair was possible in 75.0% (90/120). The overall 30-day survival was 70.8% (85/120) and survival to hospital discharge was 66.7% (80/120). Survival to hospital discharge tended to improve over time (p> 0.05), from 56.0% to 69.5% before and after, respectively, a service reorganization. For those neonates who could be stabilized and operated on, 90.9% (80/88) survived to hospital discharge. The commonest post-operative complication was infection, occurring in 43.3%. The median survivor length of stay was 32.5 (interquartile range 18.8-58.0) days. Multiple logistic regression modelling showed vaginal delivery (odds ratio OR] = 4.8; 95% confidence interval CI] 1.1-21.67]; p= 0.041), Apgar score >= 7 at 5 min (OR= 6.7; 95% CI 1.2-36.3]; p = 0.028), and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)) <50% at 24 h (OR= 89.6; 95% CI 10.6-758.6]; p< 0.001) were significantly associated with improved survival to hospital discharge. Conclusions: We report a survival to hospital discharge rate of 66.7%. Survival tended to improve over time, reflecting a greater critical volume of cases and multi-disciplinary care with early involvement of the respiratory team resulting in improved transitioning from PICU. Vaginal delivery, Apgar score >= 7 at 5 min, and FiO(2) < 50% at 24 h increased the likelihood of survival to hospital discharge.

Item Type: Article
Funders: None
Uncontrolled Keywords: Hernias; Diaphragmatic; Congenital; Infant; Newborn; Intensive care units; Pediatric; Prenatal diagnosis; Risk factors; Survival
Subjects: R Medicine > RD Surgery
R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine > Anaesthesiology Department
Faculty of Medicine > Paediatrics Department
Faculty of Medicine > Surgery Department
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 20 Nov 2023 07:53
Last Modified: 03 Dec 2023 02:00
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/41869

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