A comprehensive review of the evolution of insulin development and its delivery method

Sugumar, Vaisnevee and Ang, Kuan Ping and Alshanon, Ahmed F. and Sethi, Gautam and Yong, Phelim Voon Chen and Looi, Chung Yeng and Wong, Won Fen (2022) A comprehensive review of the evolution of insulin development and its delivery method. Pharmaceutics, 14 (7). ISSN 1999-4923, DOI https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14071406.

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The year 2021 marks the 100th anniversary of the momentous discovery of insulin. Through years of research and discovery, insulin has evolved from poorly defined crude extracts of animal pancreas to recombinant human insulin and analogues that can be prescribed and administered with high accuracy and efficacy. However, there are still many challenges ahead in clinical settings, particularly with respect to maintaining optimal glycemic control whilst minimizing the treatment-related side effects of hypoglycemia and weight gain. In this review, the chronology of the development of rapid-acting, short-acting, intermediate-acting, and long-acting insulin analogues, as well as mixtures and concentrated formulations that offer the potential to meet this challenge, are summarized. In addition, we also summarize the latest advancements in insulin delivery methods, along with advancement to clinical trials. This review provides insights on the development of insulin treatment for diabetes mellitus that may be useful for clinicians in meeting the needs of their individual patients. However, it is important to note that as of now, none of the new technologies mentioned have superseded the existing method of subcutaneous administration of insulin.

Item Type: Article
Funders: FRGS grant from the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia, FRGS/1/2020/SKK0/TAYLOR/02/6, Universiti Malaya, GPF004B-2020, Ministry of Education, Singapor, R-184-000-301-114
Uncontrolled Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Transdermal; Chemical enhancers; Physical enhancers; Non-invasive insulin delivery
Subjects: Q Science > QP Physiology
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 22 Nov 2023 05:04
Last Modified: 22 Nov 2023 05:04
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/41671

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