Towards an effective intrusion detection model using focal loss variational autoencoder for Internet of Things (IoT)

Khanam, Shapla and Ahmedy, Ismail and Idris, Mohd Yamani Idna and Jaward, Mohamed Hisham (2022) Towards an effective intrusion detection model using focal loss variational autoencoder for Internet of Things (IoT). Sensors, 22 (15). ISSN 1424-8220, DOI

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As the range of security attacks increases across diverse network applications, intrusion detection systems are of central interest. Such detection systems are more crucial for the Internet of Things (IoT) due to the voluminous and sensitive data it produces. However, the real-world network produces imbalanced traffic including different and unknown attack types. Due to this imbalanced nature of network traffic, the traditional learning-based detection techniques suffer from lower overall detection performance, higher false-positive rate, and lower minority-class attack detection rates. To address the issue, we propose a novel deep generative-based model called Class-wise Focal Loss Variational AutoEncoder (CFLVAE) which overcomes the data imbalance problem by generating new samples for minority attack classes. Furthermore, we design an effective and cost-sensitive objective function called Class-wise Focal Loss (CFL) to train the traditional Variational AutoEncoder (VAE). The CFL objective function focuses on different minority class samples and scrutinizes high-level feature representation of observed data. This leads the VAE to generate more realistic, diverse, and quality intrusion data to create a well-balanced intrusion dataset. The balanced dataset results in improving the intrusion detection accuracy of learning-based classifiers. Therefore, a Deep Neural Network (DNN) classifier with a unique architecture is then trained using the balanced intrusion dataset to enhance the detection performance. Moreover, we utilize a challenging and highly imbalanced intrusion dataset called NSL-KDD to conduct an extensive experiment with the proposed model. The results demonstrate that the proposed CFLVAE with DNN (CFLVAE-DNN) model obtains promising performance in generating realistic new intrusion data samples and achieves superior intrusion detection performance. Additionally, the proposed CFLVAE-DNN model outperforms several state-of-the-art data generation and traditional intrusion detection methods. Specifically, the CFLVAE-DNN achieves 88.08% overall intrusion detection accuracy and 3.77% false positive rate. More significantly, it obtains the highest low-frequency attack detection rates for U2R (79.25%) and R2L (67.5%) against all the state-of-the-art algorithms.

Item Type: Article
Funders: IIRG002B-2020FNW
Uncontrolled Keywords: Internet of Things; Variational autoEncoder; Class-wise focal loss; Data imbalance; Intrusion detection; Deep neural network
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Divisions: Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology > Department of Computer System & Technology
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 08 Nov 2023 09:15
Last Modified: 08 Nov 2023 09:15

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