The immunobiology of Nipah virus

Liew, Yvonne Jing Mei and Ibrahim, Puteri Ainaa S. and Ong, Hui Ming and Chong, Chee Ning and Tan, Chong Tin and Schee, Jie Ping and Roman, Raul Gomez and Cherian, Neil George and Wong, Won Fen and Chang, Li-Yen (2022) The immunobiology of Nipah virus. Microorganisms, 10 (6). ISSN 2076-2607, DOI

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Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly lethal zoonotic paramyxovirus that emerged in Malaysia in 1998. It is a human pathogen capable of causing severe respiratory infection and encephalitis. The natural reservoir of NiV, Pteropus fruit bats, remains a continuous virus source for future outbreaks, although infection in the bats is largely asymptomatic. NiV provokes serious disease in various mammalian species. In the recent human NiV outbreaks in Bangladesh and India, both bats-to-human and human-to-human transmissions have been observed. NiV has been demonstrated to interfere with the innate immune response via interferon type I signaling, promoting viral dissemination and preventing antiviral response. Studies of humoral immunity in infected NiV patients and animal models have shown that NiV-specific antibodies were produced upon infection and were protective. Studies on cellular immunity response to NiV infection in human and animal models also found that the adaptive immune response, specifically CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, was stimulated upon NiV infection. The experimental vaccines and therapeutic strategies developed have provided insights into the immunological requirements for the development of successful medical countermeasures against NiV. This review summarizes the current understanding of NiV pathogenesis and innate and adaptive immune responses induced upon infection.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Fundamental Research Grant Scheme from the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia [FRGS/1/2018/SKK11/UM/02/1], Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) [IF037-2021]
Uncontrolled Keywords: Henipavirus infections; Encephalitis; Chiroptera; Innate immunity; Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Interferon type I; Animal models; Medical countermeasures
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
R Medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 22 Sep 2023 08:19
Last Modified: 22 Sep 2023 08:19

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