Crystallinity and lattice vacancies of different mesoporous g-C3N4 for photodegradation of tetracycline and its cytotoxic implication

Phoon, Bao Lee and Husin, Juani Mazmin binti and Lee, Kuan-Ching and Leo, Bey Fen and Yang, Thomas C. -K. and Lai, Chin Wei and Juan, Joon Ching (2022) Crystallinity and lattice vacancies of different mesoporous g-C3N4 for photodegradation of tetracycline and its cytotoxic implication. Chemosphere, 308 (1). ISSN 0045-6535, DOI

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Tetracycline (TC) antibiotic removal from water bodies is important to provide clean water and sanitation. Mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) photocatalyst derived from three different types of precursors manages to remove TC effectively under visible light irradiation. Among urea, thiourea, and melamine precursors, melamine-prepared GCN (MGCN) via thermal polymerization has the highest efficiency to photodegrade tetracycline (TC) antibiotics up to 99.5% (0.0122 min(-1)) within 240 min. The COD for TC removal by using MGCN was up to 77.5% after 240 min of degradation. This is due to the slow charge recombination and rapid charge carrier migration. The MGCN encounters different properties such as high crystallinity, dense structure allowing fast charges migration, and nitrogen vacancies that create a defect state that suppresses charge recombination. It was found that the conduction band (CB) of MGCN was located at a more negative position (E-CB = -0.33 V) than (O-2/O-2(center dot-)) and the valence band (VB) was placed at a more positive position (E-VB = 2.30 V) than (H2O/OH center dot), which allows generation of both radicals for photodegradation. Based on the cell viability test, the photodegraded TC in the water how non-toxicity toward Balb/c 3T3 cells after being irradiated (lambda > 420 nm) for 240 min under visible light. The MGCN prepared in this study demonstrated the highest effectiveness and recyclable photocatalyst for the removal of TC among all GCNs.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Ministry of Education, Malaysia [FRGS/1/2021/STG05/UM/02/3], Universiti Malaya, Malaysia [PPSI-2020-CLUSTER-IDIG03], Institute of Research and Management of Universiti Malaya
Uncontrolled Keywords: Antibiotics; Cytotoxic test; Graphitic carbon nitride; Mesoporous; Photocatalyst; Tetracycline
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Divisions: Deputy Vice Chancellor (Research & Innovation) Office > Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 11 Sep 2023 07:39
Last Modified: 11 Sep 2023 07:39

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