Serological cross-reactivity among common flaviviruses

Chan, Kai Rol and Ismail, Amni Adilah and Thergarajan, Gaythri and Raju, Chandramathi Samudi and Yam, Hock Chai and Rishya, Manikam and Sekaran, Shamala Devi (2022) Serological cross-reactivity among common flaviviruses. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 12. ISSN 2235-2988, DOI

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The Flavivirus genus is made up of viruses that are either mosquito-borne or tick-borne and other viruses transmitted by unknown vectors. Flaviviruses present a significant threat to global health and infect up to 400 million of people annually. As the climate continues to change throughout the world, these viruses have become prominent infections, with increasing number of infections being detected beyond tropical borders. These include dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). Several highly conserved epitopes of flaviviruses had been identified and reported to interact with antibodies, which lead to cross-reactivity results. The major interest of this review paper is mainly focused on the serological cross-reactivity between DENV serotypes, ZIKV, WNV, and JEV. Direct and molecular techniques are required in the diagnosis of Flavivirus-associated human disease. In this review, the serological assays such as neutralization tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hemagglutination-inhibition test, Western blot test, and immunofluorescence test will be discussed. Serological assays that have been developed are able to detect different immunoglobulin isotypes (IgM, IgG, and IgA); however, it is challenging when interpreting the serological results due to the broad antigenic cross-reactivity of antibodies to these viruses. However, the neutralization tests are still considered as the gold standard to differentiate these flaviviruses.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research (MHESR), Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) [FRGS/1/2021/SKK06/UCSI/01/1]
Uncontrolled Keywords: Serological cross reactivity; Flaviviruses; Cross-protection; antibody assays; Antibodies
Subjects: R Medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 30 Aug 2023 07:46
Last Modified: 30 Aug 2023 07:46

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