Review of functional aspects of nanocellulose-based pickering emulsifier for non-toxic application and its colloid stabilization mechanism

Teo, Shao Hui and Ching, Yern Chee and Fahmi, Mochamad Zakki and Sakti, Satya Candra Wibawa and Lee, Hwei Voon (2022) Review of functional aspects of nanocellulose-based pickering emulsifier for non-toxic application and its colloid stabilization mechanism. Molecules, 27 (21). ISSN 1420-3049, DOI

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In the past few years, the research on particle-stabilized emulsion (Pickering emulsion) has mainly focused on the usage of inorganic particles with well-defined shapes, narrow size distributions, and chemical tunability of the surfaces such as silica, alumina, and clay. However, the presence of incompatibility of some inorganic particles that are non-safe to humans and the ecosystem and their poor sustainability has led to a shift towards the development of materials of biological origin. For this reason, nano-dimensional cellulose (nanocellulose) derived from natural plants is suitable for use as a Pickering material for liquid interface stabilization for various non-toxic product formulations (e.g., the food and beverage, cosmetic, personal care, hygiene, pharmaceutical, and biomedical fields). However, the current understanding of nanocellulose-stabilized Pickering emulsion still lacks consistency in terms of the structural, self-assembly, and physio-chemical properties of nanocellulose towards the stabilization between liquid and oil interfaces. Thus, this review aims to provide a comprehensive study of the behavior of nanocellulose-based particles and their ability as a Pickering functionality to stabilize emulsion droplets. Extensive discussion on the characteristics of nanocelluloses, morphology, and preparation methods that can potentially be applied as Pickering emulsifiers in a different range of emulsions is provided. Nanocellulose's surface modification for the purpose of altering its characteristics and provoking multifunctional roles for high-grade non-toxic applications is discussed. Subsequently, the water-oil stabilization mechanism and the criteria for effective emulsion stabilization are summarized in this review. Lastly, we discuss the toxicity profile and risk assessment guidelines for the whole life cycle of nanocellulose from the fresh feedstock to the end-life of the product.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE), Malaysia-Prototype Development Research Grant Scheme (Grant No: PRGS/1/2020/STG05/UM/02/1)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Nanocellulose; Pickering emulsion; Non-toxic application; Stabilization mechanism; Nanocellulose-stabilized pickering emulsion; Toxicity profile
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering > Department of Chemical Engineering
Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2023 02:10
Last Modified: 10 Nov 2023 02:10

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