Energy, exergy and economic (3E) analysis of flat-plate solar collector using novel environmental friendly nanofluid

Amar, Muhammad and Akram, Naveed and Chaudhary, Ghulam Qadar and Kazi, Salim Newaz and Soudagar, Manzoore Elahi M. and Mubarak, Nabisab Mujawar and Abul Kalam, Md (2023) Energy, exergy and economic (3E) analysis of flat-plate solar collector using novel environmental friendly nanofluid. Scientific Reports, 13 (1). ISSN 2045-2322, DOI

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The use of solar energy is one of the most prominent strategies for addressing the present energy management challenges. Solar energy is used in numerous residential sectors through flat plate solar collectors. The thermal efficiency of flat plate solar collectors is improved when conventional heat transfer fluids are replaced with nanofluids because they offer superior thermo-physical properties to conventional heat transfer fluids. Concentrated chemicals are utilized in nanofluids' conventional synthesis techniques, which produce hazardous toxic bi-products. The present research investigates the effects of novel green covalently functionalized gallic acid-treated multiwall carbon nanotubes-water nanofluid on the performance of flat plate solar collectors. GAMWCNTs are highly stable in the base fluid, according to stability analysis techniques, including ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and zeta potential. Experimental evaluation shows that the thermo-physical properties of nanofluid are better than those of base fluid deionized water. The energy, exergy and economic analysis are performed using 0.025%, 0.065% and 0.1% weight concentrations of GAMWCNT-water at varying mass flow rates 0.010, 0.0144, 0.0188 kg/s. The introduction of GAMWCNT nanofluid enhanced the thermal performance of flat plate solar collectors in terms of energy and exergy efficiency. There is an enhancement in efficiency with the rise in heat flux, mass flow rate and weight concentration, but a decline is seen as inlet temperature increases. As per experimental findings, the highest improvement in energy efficiency is 30.88% for a 0.1% weight concentration of GAMWCNT nanofluid at 0.0188 kg/s compared to the base fluid. The collector's exergy efficiency increases with the rise in weight concentration while it decreases with an increase in flow rate. The highest exergy efficiency is achieved at 0.1% GAMWCNT concentration and 0.010 kg/s mass flow rate. GAMWCNT nanofluids have higher values for friction factor compared to the base fluid. There is a small increment in relative pumping power with increasing weight concentration of nanofluid. Performance index values of more than 1 are achieved for all GAMWCNT concentrations. When the solar thermal collector is operated at 0.0188 kg/s and 0.1% weight concentration of GAMWCNT nanofluid, the highest size reduction, 27.59%, is achieved as compared to a flat plate solar collector with water as a heat transfer fluid.

Item Type: Article
Funders: None
Uncontrolled Keywords: Heat-transfer; Thermal performance; Graphene nanoplatelets; Oxide nanofluid; Pressure-drop; Efficiency; Functionalization; Flow; Conductivity; Facile
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering > Department of Mechanical Engineering
Depositing User: Ms Zaharah Ramly
Date Deposited: 30 Nov 2023 08:04
Last Modified: 30 Nov 2023 08:04

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