Microbial consortia and up-to-date technologies in global soy sauce production: A review

Chong, S. Y. and Zulkiflee Lubes, Zul Ilham and Samsudin, N. . I. P. and Soumaya, S. and Wan Mohtar, Wan Abd Al-Qadr Imad (2023) Microbial consortia and up-to-date technologies in global soy sauce production: A review. International Food Research Journal, 30 (1). pp. 1-24. ISSN 1985-4668, DOI https://doi.org/10.47836/ifrj.30.1.01.

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Soy sauce is an Oriental fermented condiment, and key ingredient in many Asian cuisines. As consumers around the world are becoming more adventurous with their eating choices and preferences, the demand for and popularity of Asian cuisines are increasing globally. The underlying basis of soy sauce fermentation is intricate microbial interactions which play a vital role in defining the quality, flavour, and smell of the resulting soy sauce. Traditional soy sauce fermentation consists of a two-step process: koji and moromi fermentation. Despite the presence of beneficial microorganisms in soy sauce, various harmful microorganisms can also be found during the koji or moromi step, thus resulting in soy sauce contamination. Therefore, studying the biodiversity and interactions of microorganisms is critical in ensuring soy sauce quality. The present review thus discusses in depth the various bacterial and fungal species that are either beneficial or harmful to soy sauce fermentation. The present review also discusses the advances in soy sauce fermentation such as the enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in soy sauce by microorganisms, the enhancement of soy sauce flavour by mixed starter culture, and by genome shuffling starter culture.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for granting via Fundamental Research Grant Scheme, UM International Collaboration Grant (Grant No: FRGS: FP066-2018A, ST002-2022 & FRGS/1/2018/STG05/UM/02/7)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Soy sauce; Koji; Moromi; Fermented food; Food security
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Science
Faculty of Science > Institute of Biological Sciences
Depositing User: Ms Zaharah Ramly
Date Deposited: 01 Dec 2023 04:54
Last Modified: 01 Dec 2023 04:54
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/38683

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