The crude aqueous extract of Piper betle L. and its antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans

Nalina, T. and Rahim, Z.H.A. (2007) The crude aqueous extract of Piper betle L. and its antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 3 (1). pp. 10-15. ISSN 15533468,

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In this study, the antimicrobial influence of crude aqueous extract of Piper betle L. on Streptococcus mutons (S. mutans) was investigated. The focus of the antimicrobial effects includes the ultrastructure and acid producing properties of S. mutans. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine the effect of the extract on the ultrastructure of S. mutans. Analysis of the effect on the acid producing properties was analyzed by pH drop assay. The investigation was further carried out to determine the possible chemical components of the extract using thin layer chromatography (TLC), bioautography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). From the micrographs of the transmission electron, it was found that the crude extract of Piper betle L. leaves causes plasma cell membrane damage and coagulation of the nucleoid. The extract was found to significantly reduce acid producing properties of the bacteria. Chemical analysis of the extract showed that hydroxychavicol, fatty acids (stearic and palmitic) and hydroxy fatty acid esters (stearic, palmitic and myristic) as the main components. It was suggested from the results obtained that the crude extract of Piper betle L. leaves may exert anticariogenic activities that are related to decrease in acid production and changes to the ultrastructure of S. mutans. Further study will be carried out to determine if the effect observed is attributed to the presence of hydroxychavicol, fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acid esters in the extract.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Cited By (since 1996): 34 Export Date: 10 September 2012 Source: Scopus Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Rahim, Z.H.A.; Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia References: Ponglux, D., Wong, S., Phadungcharoen, T., Ruangrungsri, N., Likhitwitaya, K., (1987) Medicinal Plants, pp. 194-209. , Victory Power Point Corp, Bangkok, pp; Ong, H.C., Nordiana, M., Malay ethnomedico botany in Machang, Kelantan, Malaysia (1999) Fitoterapia, 70, pp. 502-513; Fathilah, A.R., Bakri, M.M., Rahim, Z.H.A., (2000) Pascasidang Simposium Sains Kesihatan Kebangsaan ke-3. Fakulti Sains Kesihatan Bersekutu, UKM, pp. 216-219; Marsh, P.D., Are dental diseases examples of ecological catastrophes? (2003) Microbiology, 149, pp. 279-294; Sturr, M.G., Marquis, R.E., Comparative acid tolerances and inhibitor sensitivities of isolated F-ATPases of oral lactic acid bacteria (1992) Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 58, pp. 2287-2291; Katsura, H., Tsukiyama, R., Suzuki, A., Kobayashi, M., In vitro antimicrobial activities of bakuchiol against oral microorganisms (2001) Antimicrobial Agents and Chemother, 45, pp. 3009-3013; Hwang, J.-K., Shim, J.-S., Chung, J.-Y., Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans (2004) Fitoterapia, 75, pp. 596-598; Limsong, J., Benjavongkulchai, E., Kuvatanasuchati, K., Inhibitory effect of some herbal extracts on adherence of Streptococcus mutans (2004) J. Ethnopharmacol, 92, pp. 281-289; Bakri, I.M., Douglas, C.W.I., Inhibitory effect of garlic extract on oral bacteria (2005) Arch. Oral Biol, 50, pp. 645-651; Razak, F.A., Rahim, Z.H.A., The anti-adherence effect of Piper betle L. and Psidium guajava extracts on the adhesion of early settlers in dental plaque to saliva-coated glass surfaces (2003) J. Oral Sci, 45, pp. 201-206; Nalina, T., Rahim, Z.H.A., Effect of Piper betle L. leaf extract on the virulence activity of Streptococcus mutans-an in vitro study (2006) Pak. J. Biol. Sci, 9, pp. 1470-1475; Ooshima, T., Osaka, Y., Sasaki, H., Osawa, K., Yasuda, H., Matsumura, M., Sobue, S., Matsumoto, M., Caries inhibitory activity of cacao bean husk extract in in vitro and animal experiments (2000) Arch. Oral Biol, 45, pp. 639-645; Uzel, A., Sorkun, K., Oncag, O., Cogulu, D., Gencay, O., Salih, B., Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of four different Anatolian propolis samples (2005) Microbiolog. Res, 160, pp. 189-195; Liao, Y.L., Chiang, Y.C., Tsai, T.F., Lee, R.F., Chan, Y.C., Hsiao, C.H., Contact leukomelanosis induced by the leaves of Piper betle L. (Piperaceae): A clinical and histopathologic survey (1999) J. Am. Acad. Dermatol, 40, pp. 583-589; Ramji, N., Iyer, R., Chandrasekharan, S., Phenolic antibacterials from Piper betle in the prevention of halitosis (2002) J. Ethnopharmacol, 83, pp. 149-152; Bhattacharya, S., Mula, S., Gamre, S., Kamat, J.P., Bandyopadhyay, S.K., Chattopadhyay, S., Inhibitory property of Piper betel extract against photosensitization-induced damages to lipids and proteins (2007) Food Chem, 100, pp. 1474-1480; Choudhury, D., Kale, R.K., Antioxidant and non-toxic properties of Piper betle leaf extract: In vitro and in vivo studies (2002) Phytother. Res, 16, pp. 461-466; Jeng, J.H., Chen, S.Y., Liao, C.H., Tung, Y.Y., Lin, B.R., Hahn, L.J., Chang, M.C., Modulation of platelet aggregation by areca nut and betle leaf ingredients: Roles of reactive oxygen species and cyclogenase (2002) Free Rad. Biol. Med, 32, pp. 860-871; Pauli, A., Antimicrobial Properties of Catechol Derivatives (2002) World Congress on Allelopathy, pp. 3rd. , Tsukuba, Japan, Aug. 26-30; Hayes, M.L., Berkovitz, B.K., The reduction of fissure caries in Wistar rats by a soluble salt of nonanoinic acid (1979) Arch. Oral Biol, 24, pp. 663-666; Kabara, J.J., Swieczkowski, D.M., Conley, A.J., Truant, J.P., Fatty acids and derivatives as antimicrobial agents (1972) Antimicrobial Agents and Chemother, 2, pp. 23-28; Sheu, C.W., Freese, E., Effects of fatty acids on growth and envelope proteins of Bacillus subtilis (1972) J. Bacteriol, 111, pp. 516-524; Booth, I.R., Regulation of cytoplasmic pH in bacteria (1985) Microbiolog. Rev, 49, pp. 329-378; Iwami, Y., Schachtele, C.F., Yamada, T., Effect of sucrose monolaurate on acid production, levels of glycolytic intermediates and enzyme activities of Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449 (1995) J. Dental Res, 74, pp. 1613-1617; Marshall, D.L., Cotton, L.N., Bal'a, F.A., Acetic Acid (2000) Natural Food Antimicrobial Systems, pp. 61-688. , A. S. Naidu Ed, Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, pp
Uncontrolled Keywords: Acid production Antimicrobial Bioautography Piper betle L. S. Mutans Bacteria Biochemistry Biological materials Fatty acids Transmission electron microscopy Antimicrobial activities Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) Plants (botany) Bacteria (microorganisms) Piper betle Streptococcus Streptococcus mutans
Subjects: R Medicine > RK Dentistry
Divisions: Faculty of Dentistry > Dept of Oral Biology
Depositing User: Mr Ahmad Azwan Azman
Date Deposited: 23 Oct 2012 03:50
Last Modified: 23 Oct 2012 03:50

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