Antioxidants, toxicity, and nitric oxide inhibition properties of pyroligneous acid from Palm kernel shell biomass

Mahmud, Khoirun Nisa and Mohd Hashim, Najihah and Ani, Farid Nasir and Zakaria, Zainul Akmar (2020) Antioxidants, toxicity, and nitric oxide inhibition properties of pyroligneous acid from Palm kernel shell biomass. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 11 (11). pp. 6307-6319. ISSN 1877-2641, DOI

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Huge volumes of lignocellulosic biomass residues generated from agricultural activities such as oil palm biomass pose great environmental threats if improperly treated. In this study, pyroligneous acid (PA) obtained from slow pyrolysis of palm kernel shell (PKS) were evaluated for its antioxidant activity via chemical assays, toxicity, and potential as anti-inflammatory agent based on nitric oxide (NO) inhibition activity. The PA was extracted using ethyl acetate (EA) and fractionated using column chromatography. Fractions 13-17 that contain highest total phenolic contents (866.84 +/- 54.28 mu g GAE/mg) were chosen for subsequent studies. Results obtained were as follows; DPPH-75.34 +/- 3.40%, TEAC-1346.48 +/- 5.29 mu g Trolox/mg, FRAP-11.80 +/- 0.41 mmol Fe(II)/mg, hydroxyl radical scavenging-IC50 270.34 +/- 4.88 mu g/mL, superoxide radical scavenging-IC50 472.32 +/- 1.87 mu g/mL, cytotoxicity after 24 h at less than 50 mu g/mL-cell viability of >= 93.08% for RAW 264.7 macrophage cell and anti-inflammatory activity with NO production of 6.55% after 24 h at sample concentration of 25 mu g/mL. From the GC-MS analysis, phenols and derivatives were identified as major compound (83.24%) followed by esters (11.23%), and ketones (5.53%). The present of phenolic compounds namely benzene-1,2-diol, catechol (35.01%), 1,3-dimethoxy-2-hydroxybenzene, syringol (23.81%), and other catechol derivatives can be attributed to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities determined. This study has successfully demonstrated the potential use of PA obtained from PKS as alternative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. GRAPHICS]

Item Type: Article
Funders: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) (07G78), Ministry of Education, Malaysia (4F994)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Pyroligneous acid; Palm kernel shell; Phenolic; Antioxidants; Anti-inflammatory
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine
Depositing User: Ms Zaharah Ramly
Date Deposited: 08 Mar 2023 07:30
Last Modified: 08 Mar 2023 07:30

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