Estimation of hepatitis a virus infection prevalence through drinking water supply of primary schools of Sindh, Pakistan

Ahmed, Jamil and Wong, Li Ping and Chua, Yan Piaw and Yasmin, Aneela and Channa, Najeebullah and VanDerslice, James A. (2020) Estimation of hepatitis a virus infection prevalence through drinking water supply of primary schools of Sindh, Pakistan. Hepatitis Monthly, 20 (5). ISSN 1735143X, DOI

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Background: Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) is among the main endemic human enteric viral diseases that directly or indirectly affect children's performance at primary schools in low-income countries. Limited information is available on the presence of HAV, with particular reference to drinking water supplies of primary schools in Sindh, Pakistan. Objectives: The present study estimated the risk of HAV infection through drinking water sources using Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) in primary schools of Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: TheQMRAmodel was applied to estimate the potential health risks of HAV using indicator organisms, i.e., fecal coliforms. Microbial analysis was conducted using a membrane filtration method. The exponential dose-response model was used to calculate the probability of infection. Results: The highest daily risk of HAV infection for schoolchildren was calculated as 35.0 per 10,000 schoolchildren in Karachi district with an annual risk of 66%, whereas the lowest risk was 3.0 per 10,000 schoolchildren in Larkana with 7.8% of the annual risk. The mortality risk due to HAV ranged from 4.0 to 29 deaths per 10,000 children per year. Conclusions: Overall, the drinking water quality of primary schools of Sindh was found very poor. The estimated daily and annual risks of hepatitis A to primary school children were moderate to high. To halt enteric virus transmission through drinking water sources, there is a dire need to invest in the provision of comprehensive water sanitation and hygiene facilities at schools.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Hepatitis A; Health Risk; Enteric Virus; Drinking Water
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR355 Virology
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Education
Faculty of Medicine
Faculty of Medicine > Social & Preventive Medicine
Depositing User: Ms Zaharah Ramly
Date Deposited: 01 Dec 2023 03:43
Last Modified: 01 Dec 2023 03:43

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