Cultural adaptation of sniffin’ sticks test for a Malaysian population

Loong, Siow Ping and Wong, E.H.C. and Govindaraju, Revadi and Nordin, A. and Brand, Y. and Abu Bakar, Mohd Zulkiflee and Narayanan, Prepageran (2021) Cultural adaptation of sniffin’ sticks test for a Malaysian population. Journal of Health and Translational Medicine, 24 (2). pp. 65-71. ISSN 1823-7339, DOI

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Introduction: Sniffin’ Stick test is a quantitative olfactory test first introduced in the 1990s and has since been used in several countries after cultural-based modifications. Objective: To develop a culturally adapted Sniffin’ Stick test suitable for a Malaysian population. Methods: The study was done in 3 phases. The first phase involved a questionnaire rating the familiarity of 70 odors based on a Likert scale. Sixteen items were then selected for the second phase where subjects were tested on the identification of the 16 odors. Odors recognized by less than 75 of the subjects or their distractors were replaced. These steps were repeated until all 16 odors were recognized by more than 75 of the subjects. In the final phase, the mean Odor Identification (OI) scores utilizing the newly selected 16 odors were collected among healthy individuals. Results: A total of 417 subjects participated in the study. In the first-phase, 5 odors from the original Sniffin’ Stick Test which were unfamiliar were replaced for the phase 2 of the study. In the second-phase, modifications were performed 3 times requiring change of 41 distractors and an additional odor. Finally, using the modified Sniffin Stick test version-4, preliminary results of the mean odor identification scoring for the age groups 16-35,36-55 and more than 55 years of age were obtained which showed age-related variations. Conclusion: Our study revealed cultural modifications to the original Sniffin’ Stick Test are required to validate its use in a Malaysian population. © 2021, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Article
Funders: None
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cultural Adaptation; Quantitative Olfactory Test; Sniffin’ Sticks Test
Subjects: R Medicine > RF Otorhinolaryngology
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine > Otorhinolaryngology Department
Universiti Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
Depositing User: Ms Zaharah Ramly
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2023 05:05
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2023 05:05

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