The development of new homogenous and heterogeneous catalytic processes for the treatment of low grade palm oil

Hayyan, Adeeb and Yeow, Andrew T. H. and Abed, Khalid M. and Basirun, Wan Jeffrey and Kiat, Low Boon and Saleh, Jehad and Han, Goh Wen and Min, Pua Chia and Aljohani, Abdullah S. M. and Zulkifli, Mohd Yakub and Alajmi, Falah D. H. and Alhumaydhi, Fahad A. and Aldeehani, Ahmaad Kadmouse and Hashim, Mohd Ali (2021) The development of new homogenous and heterogeneous catalytic processes for the treatment of low grade palm oil. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 344. ISSN 0167-7322, DOI

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Low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO) presents as an attractive option as feedstock for biodiesel production due to its low cost and non-competition with food resources. Typically, LGCPO contains high contents of free fatty acids (FFA), rendering it impossible in direct trans-esterification processes due to the saponification reaction. Esterification is the typical pre-treatment process to reduce the FFA content and to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The pre-treatment of LGCPO using two different acid catalysts, such as titanium oxysulphate sulphuric acid complex hydrate (TiOSH) and 5-sulfosalicylic acid dihydrate (5-SOCAH) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimum conditions for the homogenous catalyst (5-SOCAH) were determined as: 1.5 wt% of acid catalyst dosage, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 8:1 methanol molar ratio at 60 min. For the heterogeneous TiOSH, higher catalyst dosages such as 7 wt% is required with a methanol loading of 10:1 (molar ratio) at 120 min to reduce the initial FFA to less than 3%. Under these optimum conditions for both types of catalysts; the FFA levels were reduced from 11.3 % to less than 3 %, individually. This study introduces for the first time two types of acidic catalysts with high catalytic activity for the esterification of FFA content in low grade oils for biodiesel production which could be used for the treatment of wide range of low quality oils. (C) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Low grade oil;Esterification;Pre-treatment;Homogeneous catalysts;Titanium oxysulphate sulphuric acid complex hydrate
Subjects: Q Science > QC Physics
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Ms Zaharah Ramly
Date Deposited: 14 Sep 2022 07:50
Last Modified: 14 Sep 2022 07:50

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