Three-dimensional porous calcium alginate fluorescence bead-based immunoassay for highly sensitive early diagnosis of breast cancer

Chia, Ying Yao and Theverajah, T. Malathi and Alias, Yatimah and Khor, Sook Mei (2022) Three-dimensional porous calcium alginate fluorescence bead-based immunoassay for highly sensitive early diagnosis of breast cancer. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 414 (3, SI). pp. 1359-1373. ISSN 1618-2642, DOI

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A sensitive biosensor capable of detecting trace concentrations of several cancer biomarkers in clinical samples is critical for early detection of cancer because different cancer biomarkers may be expressed at different stages of cancer. Previous multiplex studies using microarrays or color-coded beads had limited multiplex detection in a single well, and difficulty in optimizing and unifying the incubation parameters for all tests made in different wells had posed challenges to small sample size and lengthened assay time. Herein, we proposed a novel approach to achieve multiplex analysis on a single three-dimensional porous calcium alginate bead. Because of the high surface area to volume ratio of the calcium alginate immuno-bead, the sensitivity and linear dynamic range of the as-proposed multiplex analysis method are significantly improved. Based on the direct sandwich immunoassay principle, dual-capturing antibodies were encapsulated into a single 3D porous calcium alginate bead as a proof-of-concept for multiplexity detection of serum-HER2 and serum-CA125 breast cancer biomarkers. High sensitivity was attained, with LODs of 0.004 ng mL(-1) for serum HER2, and 0.005 U mL(-1) for serum CA125, both of which are below the clinical cutoff values, enabling for early breast cancer diagnosis. Stability tests revealed that the 3D immuno-beads were stable at 4 degrees C and room temperature (25 degrees C) for at least 14 days. Most importantly, the results obtained using the developed system were in good agreement with those obtained using standard methods while analyzing real clinical samples. In addition, the analysis required only approximately 30 min, which was much less time than typical ELISA techniques. When endogenous interferences were introduced, no cross-reactivity was observed. We anticipate this approach to be potentially used in the multiplex assays and biosensors.

Item Type: Article
Funders: 2019 SATU Joint Research Scheme (JRS) [Grant No: ST003-2019]
Uncontrolled Keywords: Breast cancer; Multiplexed immunoassay; HER2; CA125; Calcium alginate bead; Sandwich immunoassay
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Q Science > QR Microbiology
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Faculty of Medicine
Faculty of Science
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 20 Jul 2022 08:21
Last Modified: 20 Jul 2022 08:21

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