Craniofacial anthropometric norms of Malaysian Indians

Ngeow, Wei Cheong and Aljunid, S.T. (2009) Craniofacial anthropometric norms of Malaysian Indians. Indian Journal of Dental Research, 20 (3). pp. 313-319. ISSN 0970-9290, DOI


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Objective: This study was done to establish the craniofacial anthropometric norms of the young adult (18-25 years) Malaysian Indian. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of convenient samples of 100 healthy volunteers, with equal number of female and male subjects who had no history of mixed racial-parentage. Twenty-two linear measurements were taken twice from 28 landmarks over six craniofacial regions. The methodology and evaluation of indices of the craniofacial region was adapted from Hajnis et al. Results: The minimum measurements are always contributed by the female Indian except for the nose height (n-sn), (left) eye fissure length (ex-en), upper vermillion height (ls-sto), and lower vermillion height (sto-li). There is a gender difference in all the measurements except the (left) eye fissure height (independent t-test; P < 0.05). The Malaysian Indians exhibit some North American White Caucasian (NAWC) features in all regions. The cephalic index indicates a brachycephalic or relatively short wide head with a tendency towards mesocephaly. From the low nasal index, the Malaysian Indian female have a nose that is narrow or leptorrhin similar to the NAWCs. The lower value of the upper lip height to mouth width index in the Indian female indicates a relatively shorter upper lip height compared to the mouth width, also similar to the NAWC. Conclusion: This study establishes the craniofacial anthropometric norms of the Malaysian Indian over 22 parameters. Male in general has a significantly higher measurement than female. The Malaysian Indians do exhibit some NAWC features.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Cited By (since 1996): 2 Export Date: 7 March 2012 Source: Scopus PubMed ID: 19884715 Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Ngeow, W. C.; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur - 50603, Malaysia; email: References: Kolar, J.C., Salter, E.M., Craniofacial anthropometry: Practical measurement of the head and face for clinical surgical and research use (1997) Illinois: Charles C Thomas; Argyropoulos, E., Sassouni, V., Comparison of the dentofacial patterns for native Greek and American-Caucasian adolescents (1989) Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 95, pp. 238-249; Farkas, L.G., (1994) Anthropometry of the Head and Face, , 2nd ed. New York; Raven Press; Sindhu, K.S., The Coming of the Indians to Malaysia, , Indian communities in South East Asia. Sindhu KS, Mani A, editor. 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Uncontrolled Keywords: Asia; Craniofacial Anthropometry; Ethnic; Malaysian Indians; Measurement; Adolescent; Adult; Article; Asian; Caucasian; Cephalometry; Face; Female; Histology; Human; Malaysia; Male; Maxillofacial; Development; Reference Value; Standard; Statistics; Asian Continental Ancestry Group; European Continental Ancestry Group; Humans; Reference Values; Young Adult
Subjects: R Medicine
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RK Dentistry
Divisions: Faculty of Dentistry > Dept of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Depositing User: Dr Wei Cheong Ngeow
Date Deposited: 14 Mar 2012 02:21
Last Modified: 19 Oct 2020 01:31

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