Seaweed aquaculture: A preliminary assessment of biosecurity measures for controlling the ice-ice syndrome and pest outbreaks of a Kappaphycus farm

Kambey, Cicilia S. B. and Campbell, Iona and Cottier-Cook, Elizabeth J. and Nor, Adibi R. M. and Kassim, Azhar and Sade, Ahemad and Lim, Phaik E. (2021) Seaweed aquaculture: A preliminary assessment of biosecurity measures for controlling the ice-ice syndrome and pest outbreaks of a Kappaphycus farm. Journal of Applied Phycology, 33 (5). pp. 3179-3197. ISSN 0921-8971, DOI

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The application of biosecurity in seaweed aquaculture plays an important role in reducing the impact of disease and pest outbreaks. The continuous occurrence of seaweed pests including the macroalgal epiphytes, epi-endophytic filamentous algae and biofilms on Kappaphycus farms may also potentially induce further incidences of the ice-ice syndrome. In this study, on-farm biosecurity management measures were tested on the commercially grown seaweeds Kappaphycus malesianus and Kappaphycus alvarezii during peak ice-ice season at Gallam-Gallam Village, Sabah, Malaysia. The investigation was focused on preventative control measures including the early detection of the ice-ice syndrome and pests through propagule health checks, regular cleaning of the crop thallus and associated long-line ropes and monitoring of the environment. Farm procedures and practices were also assessed in terms of their biosecurity `risk' using the hazard analysis and critical control point (HCCAP) approach. Observations were replicated in two different farm management systems; one system adopted routine biosecurity measures and the other had no biosecurity measures. The results showed that the ice-ice syndrome and pest outbreak was significantly decreased by 60-75% for K. malesianus and 29-71% for K. alvarezii at the farm which adopted the routine biosecurity measures compared with the no biosecurity treatment. The biosecurity measures also significantly improved growth rate and seaweed quality. The infection levels of the epi-endophyte Melanothamnus sp. contributed to the ice-ice syndrome in K. malesianus, whilst the epiphyte coverage was correlated to the ice-ice incidence in K. alvarezii. This study provides the first evidence of biosecurity management measures significantly decreasing the incidence of the ice-ice syndrome and pests on a commercial seaweed farm.

Item Type: Article
Funders: UK Research and Innovation - Global Challenge Research Fund (GCRF), Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council [Grant No: BB/PO27806/1], Universiti Malaya [Grant No: IF015-2019], Higher Center of Excellence (HiCoE) - Ministry of Higher Education [Grant No: IOES-2014H]
Uncontrolled Keywords: Biosecurity; Farm practices; Ice-ice syndrome; Kappaphycus farm; Rhodophyta; Seaweed aquaculture
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Q Science > QR Microbiology
Divisions: Deputy Vice Chancellor (Research & Innovation) Office > Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences
Depositing User: Ms Zaharah Ramly
Date Deposited: 21 Apr 2022 08:20
Last Modified: 21 Apr 2022 08:20

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