Snake venom proteomics and antivenomics of two Sundaic lance-headed pit vipers: Trimeresurus wiroti (Malaysia) and Trimeresurus puniceus (Indonesia)

Lee, Louisa Pernee and Tan, Kae Yi and Tan, Choo Hock (2021) Snake venom proteomics and antivenomics of two Sundaic lance-headed pit vipers: Trimeresurus wiroti (Malaysia) and Trimeresurus puniceus (Indonesia). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology D-Genomics & Proteomics, 40. ISSN 1744-117X, DOI

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Envenomation by two medically important Sundaic pit vipers, Trimeresurus wiroti (Malaysia) and Trimeresurus puniceus (Indonesia), causes hemotoxic syndrome with a potentially fatal outcome. Research on the compositions and antigenicity of these pit viper venoms is however lacking, limiting our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of envenomation. This study investigated the venom proteomes of both species through a protein decomplexation strategy, applying C-18 reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protein identification through nanoelectrospray ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-LCMS/MS) of trypsindigested peptides. The venom antigenicity was profiled against the Thai Green Pit Viper Antivenom (GPVAV, a hetero-specific antivenom), using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The venom proteomes of T. wiroti and T. puniceus consisted of 10 and 12 toxin families, respectively. The major proteins were of diverse snake venom serine proteases (19-30% of total venom proteins), snake venom metalloproteinases (17-26%), disintegrins (9-16%), phospholipases A(2) (8-28%) and C-type lectins (similar to 8%). These were putative snake toxins implicated in hemorrhage and coagulopathy, consistent with clinical hemotoxicity. GPVAV showed strong immunorecognition toward high and medium molecular weight proteins (e.g., SVMP and PLA(2)) in both venoms, while a lower binding activity was observed toward small proteins such as disintegrins. Conserved antigenicity in the major hemotoxins supported toxicity cross-neutralization by GPVAV and indicated that the immunorecognition of low molecular weight toxins may be optimized for improved binding efficacy. Taken together, the study provides insights into the pathophysiology and antivenom treatment of envenomation caused by T. wiroti and T. puniceus in the region.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Ministry of Higher Education, Government of Malaysia (FRGS/1/2019/SKK08/UM/02/19), University of Malaya Specialist Center UMSC CA.R.E Research Grant (PV058-2018)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Craspedocephalus; Hemotoxin; Green pit viper antivenom; Venomics; Immunorecognition
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine
Depositing User: Ms Zaharah Ramly
Date Deposited: 10 Jun 2022 00:45
Last Modified: 10 Jun 2022 00:45

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