An Experimental study on D2D route selection mechanism in 5G scenarios

Chamran, Mohammad Kazem and Yau, Kok-Lim Alvin and Noor, Rafidah Md and Wu, Celimuge (2021) An Experimental study on D2D route selection mechanism in 5G scenarios. Electronics, 10 (4). ISSN 2079-9292, DOI

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This paper demonstrates a route selection mechanism on a testbed with heterogeneous device-to-device (D2D) wireless communication for a 5G network scenario. The source node receives information about the primary users' (PUs') (or licensed users') activities and available routes from the macrocell base station (or a central controller) and makes a decision to select a multihop route to the destination node. The source node from small cells can either choose: (a) a route with direct communication with the macrocell base station to improve the route performance; or (b) a route with D2D communication among nodes in the small cells to offload traffic from the macrocell to improve spectrum efficiency. The selected D2D route has the least PUs' activities. The route selection mechanism is investigated on our testbed that helps to improve the accuracy of network performance measurement. In traditional testbeds, each node (e.g., Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) that serves as the front-end communication block) is connected to a single processing unit (e.g., a personal computer) via a switch using cables. In our testbed, each USRP node is connected to a separate processing unit, i.e., raspberry Pi3 B+ (or RP3), which offers three main advantages: (a) control messages and data packets are exchanged via the wireless medium; (b) separate processing units make decisions in a distributed and heterogeneous manner; and (c) the nodes are placed further apart from one another. Therefore, in the investigation of our route selection scheme, the response delay of control message exchange and the packet loss caused by the operating environment (e.g., ambient noise) are implied in our end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio measurement. Our results show an increase of end-to-end delay and a decrease of packet delivery ratio due to the transmission of control messages and data packets in the wireless medium in the presence of the dynamic PUs' activities. Furthermore, D2D communication can offload 25% to 75% traffic from macrocell base station to small cells.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Malaysian Ministry of Education under Fundamental Research Grant Scheme[FRGS/1/2019/ICT03/SYUC/01/1], Sunway University[CR-UMSSTDCIS-2018-01]
Uncontrolled Keywords: D2D communication; 5G; Sensor network; Sensor; End-to-end delay; USRP; Raspberry Pi; Primary users
Subjects: T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
Divisions: Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 15 Apr 2022 01:31
Last Modified: 15 Apr 2022 01:31

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