Psychosocial factors associated with depression and anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic among outpatients with depression

Zulkifli, Nathratul Ayeshah and Guan, Ng Chong and Zainal, Nor Zuraida and Ling, Tang Song (2021) Psychosocial factors associated with depression and anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic among outpatients with depression. Alpha Psychiatry, 22 (4). pp. 185-193. ISSN 2757-8038, DOI

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Objective: Long-term social distancing, isolation, and economic fallout may be significant psychological triggers during pandemic, such as COVID-19, especially for those with underlying psychiatric illness. This study was conducted to address the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic among patients with depression based at a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional online study among patients with depression from University Malaya Medical Centre, using Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale-Self Assessment (MADRS-S), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP), and Social Media Addiction during COVID-19 Pandemic (SMACOP). Results: One hundred seventy-eight patients participated in this study. The mean total of the KAP score is 12.65 (SD = 2.65), with knowledge section (mean = 7.34 SD = 2.13]), attitudes section (mean = 2.63 SD = 0.58]), and practices section (mean = 2.69 SD = 1.00]). They scored moderately on the MADRS-S (mean = 21.03 SD = 4.62]) and ISI (mean = 20.25 SD = 4.62]) but had high GAD-7 scores (mean = 16.8 (SD = 6.27]). From the multiple logistic regression analyses, depressive symptoms of greater severity (MADRS-S 18-34) are significantly associated with more severe insomnia (P <.001, adjusted OR = 9.101, 95% CI: 3.613-22.924). Furthermore, the high anxiety level is associated with the younger age group (P =.029, Adjusted OR = 2.274, 95% CI: 1.090-4.746), greater severity of insomnia (P <.001, Adjusted OR = 22.9, 95% CI: 6.145-85.343), and higher risk of COVID-19 related social media addiction (P =.011, adjusted OR = 2.637, 95% CI: 1.253-5.550). Conclusion: This study demonstrates the high levels of sleep disturbances and anxiety symptoms experienced by outpatients with depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. These are closely linked to the younger age group and at-risk social media addiction related to COVID-19.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Depression; Anxiety; COVID-19; Social media
Subjects: R Medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine > School of Psychology
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 29 Mar 2022 07:58
Last Modified: 29 Mar 2022 07:58

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