Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Culex Mosquitoes in Singapore

Yap, Grace and Mailepessov, Diyar and Lim, Xiao Fang and Chan, Sharon and How, Choon Beng and Humaidi, Mahathir and Yeo, Gladys and Chong, Chee Seng and Lam-Phua, Sai Gek and Lee, Ruth and Okumura, Chiharu and Vythilingam, Indra and Ng, Lee Ching (2020) Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Culex Mosquitoes in Singapore. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 103 (3). pp. 1234-1240. ISSN 0002-9637, DOI

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Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are emerging pathogens of an increasing global public health concern because of their rapid increase in geographical range and the impact of climate change. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are of concern because of the risk of reemergence and introduction by migratory birds. In Singapore, human WNV infection has never been reported and human JEV infection is rare. Four sentinel vector surveillance sites were established in Singapore to understand the potential risk posed by these viruses. Surveillance was carried out from August 2011 to December 2012 at Pulau Ubin, from March 2011 to March 2013 at an Avian Sanctuary (AS), from December 2010 from October 2012 at Murai Farmway, and from December 2010 to December 2013 at a nature reserve. The present study revealed active JEV transmission in Singapore through the detection of JEV genotype II in Culex tritaeniorhynchus collected from an Avian Sanctuary. Culex flavivirus (CxFV), similar to the Quang Binh virus isolated from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in Vietnam and CxFV-LSFlaviV-A20-09 virus isolated in China, was also detected in Culex spp. (vishnui subgroup). No WNV was detected. This study demonstrates the important role that surveillance plays in public health and strongly suggests the circulation of JEV among wildlife in Singapore, despite the absence of reported human cases. A One Health approach involving surveillance, the collaboration between public health and wildlife managers, and control of mosquito populations remains the key measures in risk mitigation of JEV transmission in the enzootic cycle between birds and mosquitoes. Copyright © 2020 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Flavivirus; Culicidae; Triatoma Virus
Subjects: R Medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 26 Feb 2021 02:55
Last Modified: 26 Feb 2021 02:55

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