Aqueous chlorination of mefenamic acid: Kinetics, transformation by-products and ecotoxicity assessment

Khalit, W.N.A.W. and Tay, K.S. (2016) Aqueous chlorination of mefenamic acid: Kinetics, transformation by-products and ecotoxicity assessment. Environmental Science: Processes and Impacts, 18 (5). pp. 555-561. ISSN 2050-7887, DOI

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Mefenamic acid (Mfe) is one of the most frequently detected nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the environment. This study investigated the kinetics and the transformation by-products of Mfe during aqueous chlorination. The potential ecotoxicity of the transformation by-products was also evaluated. In the kinetic study, the second-order rate constant (kapp) for the reaction between Mfe and free available chlorine (FAC) was determined at 25 ± 0.1 °C. The result indicated that the degradation of Mfe by FAC is highly pH-dependent. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, it was found that the kapp for the reaction between Mfe and FAC was decreased from 16.44 to 4.4 M-1 s-1. Characterization of the transformation by-products formed during the chlorination of Mfe was carried out using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight accurate mass spectrometry. Four major transformation by-products were identified. These transformation by-products were mainly formed through hydroxylation, chlorination and oxidation reactions. Ecotoxicity assessment revealed that transformation by-products, particularly monohydroxylated Mfe which is more toxic than Mfe, can be formed during aqueous chlorination.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Ministry of Higher Education: Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FP043-2013A), University of Malaya: (PPP PG075-2014B and UMRG RG342-15AFR)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; Chlorine; Chromatography, Liquid; Halogenation; Hazardous Substances; Kinetics; Mefenamic Acid; Water Pollutants, Chemical; Water Purification
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 23 Oct 2017 06:15
Last Modified: 23 Oct 2017 06:15

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