Utilization of sodium bentonite to maximize the filler and pozzolanic effects of stabilized peat

Wong, L.S. and Hashim, R. and Ali, F. (2013) Utilization of sodium bentonite to maximize the filler and pozzolanic effects of stabilized peat. Engineering Geology, 152. pp. 56-66. ISSN 00137952

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Abstract

Sodium bentonite is recognized as a natural pozzolan that can improve the mechanical properties of cemented materials due to its fineness and high content of silica and alumina. When mixed with cement paste in an appropriate amount, it is capable to impart pozzolanic effect which is vital to ensure continuous strength gain of cemented materials. Besides, the fineness of sodium bentonite enables the clay to bring filler effect on cemented materials, thus refining its pore spaces and reinforcing its structures. For stabilization of highly organic soil such as peat, research works that aim to quantify these effects with sodium bentonite as a natural pozzolan are relatively few. This article focuses on laboratory investigation on the application of sodium bentonite to maximize the filler and pozzolanic effects of stabilized peat. The outcome of the laboratory investigation is an optimal mix design of stabilized peat, which can be effectively applied to improve peat in a geological condition of swampy area for highway construction. Other than sodium bentonite, calcium chloride, Portland Composite Cement (PCC) and silica sand were used as additives to stabilize the peat sampled from Sri Nadi village, which is located in the area of Klang, Malaysia. To develop the optimal mix design, specimens of stabilized peat were tested in unconfined compression, direct shear and falling head tests. Both elemental composition and microstructure of the stabilized soil were examined using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) apparatus and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that test specimen of stabilized peat containing 10 partial replacement of PCC with sodium bentonite has the maximum unconfined compressive strength at 7days of curing in water and under the application of 50kPa initial pressure. Besides peat, the test specimen was formulated with a 300kgm-3 binder dosage and a 596kgm-3 silica sand dosage. At the same mix design, test specimens of stabilized peat have high values of cohesion, high values of angle of internal friction and very low rates of permeability, which are comparable to that of intact clay with a practically impervious drainage characteristic. Also, it was discovered that after testing, the test specimens showed a progressive increase in the direct shear parameters and a continuous decrease in the rate of permeability with increasing curing time in water. In the EDX and SEM analyses, high peaks of calcium, silicon, aluminum and oxide elements, and insignificant pore spaces of the stabilized peat were observed. This proves the existence of cementation products of mainly calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium aluminate hydrate (CAH) crystals that were responsible to bind the organic and soil particles together to form stabilized peat.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Export Date: 16 December 2013 Source: Scopus CODEN: EGGOA Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Wong, L.S.; Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Km 7, Jalan Kajang-Puchong, 43009 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia; email: wongls79@gmail.com References: Allo, W.A., Murray, H.H., Mineralogy, chemistry and potential applications of a white bentonite in San Juan province, Argentina (2004) Applied Clay Science, 25, pp. 237-243; Alwi, A., Ground improvement of Malaysian peat soils using stabilised peat-column techniques (2008) PhD thesis, , University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) (2000) Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Section four: Construction, 408; Andriesse, J.P., (1988) Nature and Management of Tropical Peat Soils, , Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy; Anisur Rahman, M.D., The potentials of some stabilizers for the use of lateritic soil in construction (1986) Building and Environment, 21, pp. 57-61; Berry, P.L., Vickers, B., Consolidation of fibrous peat (1975) Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, 101, pp. 741-753; Billong, N., Melo, U.C., Louvet, F., Njopwouo, D., Properties of compressed lateritic soil stabilized with a burnt clay-lime binder: effect of mixture components (2009) Construction and Building Materials, 23, pp. 2457-2460; Cai, Y., Shi, B., Ng, C.W.W., Tang, C., Effect of polypropylene fibre and lime admixture on engineering properties of clayey soil (2006) Engineering Geology, 87, pp. 230-240; Chen, H., Wang, Q., The behaviour of organic matter in the process of soft soil stabilization using cement (2006) Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 65, pp. 445-448; Churchman, G.J., Askary, M., Peter, P., Wright, M., Raven, M.D., Self, P.G., Geotechnical properties indicating environmental uses for an unusual Australian bentonite (2002) Applied Clay Science, 20, pp. 199-209; Cristelo, N., Glendinning, S., Fernandes, L., Pinto, A.T., Effect of calcium content on soil stabilisation with alkaline activation (2012) Construction and Building Materials, 29, pp. 167-174; Dhowian, A.W., Edil, T.B., Consolidation behavior of peats (1980) Geotechnical Testing Journal, 3, pp. 105-114; Felekoǧlu, B., Türkel, S., Kalyoncu, H., Optimization of fineness to maximize the strength activity of high-calcium ground fly ash - Portland cement composites (2009) Construction and Building Materials, 23, pp. 2053-2061; Filippov, L., Thomas, F., Filippova, I., Yvon, J., Morillon-Jeanmaire, A., Stabilization of NaCI-containing cuttings wastes in cement concrete by in situ formed mineral phases (2009) Journal of Hazardous Materials, 171, pp. 731-738; Habert, G., Choupay, N., Montel, J.M., Guillaume, D., Escadeillas, G., Effects of the secondary minerals of the natural pozzolans on their pozzolanic activity (2008) Cement and Concrete Research, 38, pp. 963-975; Hanrahan, E.T., An investigation of some physical properties of peat (1954) Geotechnique, 4, pp. 108-123; Head, K.H., (2006) Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing, , Whittles Publishing, London, UK; Hebib, S., Farrell, E.R., Some experiences on the stabilization of Irish peats (2003) Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 40, pp. 107-120; Isaia, G.C., Gastaldini, A.L.G., Moraes, R., Physical and pozzolanic action of mineral additions on the mechanical strength of high-performance concrete (2003) Cement and Concrete Composites, 25, pp. 69-76; Ito, H., Komine, H., Dynamic compaction properties of bentonite-based materials (2008) Engineering Geology, 98, pp. 133-143; Kogure, K., Yamaguchi, H., Shogaki, T., Physical and pore properties of fibrous peat deposit (1993) Proceedings of the 11th Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference, Singapore, pp. 135-139; Landva, A.O., Pheeney, P.E., Peat fabric and structure (1980) Geotechnique, 17, pp. 416-435; Lim, J.S., Major Soil Mapping Units in Peninsular Malaysia (1989) Proceedings on Workshop on Recent Development in Soil Genesis and Classification, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 113-133. , S. 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Uncontrolled Keywords: Filler, Optimal mix design, Pozzolanic, Sodium bentonite, Stabilized peat, Angle of internal friction, Calcium aluminate hydrate, Calcium silicate hydrate, Cement paste, Cemented materials, Composite cements, Curing time, Direct shear, Drainage characteristics, Elemental compositions, Energy dispersive x-ray, Filler effects, Geological conditions, High-content, Highway construction, Initial pressure, Laboratory investigations, Low rates, Malaysia, Mix designs, Natural pozzolan, Optimal mixes, Organic soil, Partial replacement, Pore space, Pozzolanic effect, SEM analysis, Soil particles, Stabilized soils, Strength gain, Swampy area, Test specimens, Unconfined compression, Unconfined compressive strength, Alumina, Aluminum, Bentonite, Calcium chloride, Calcium compounds, Cement additives, Fillers, Highway engineering, Hydrates, Optimization, Pozzolan, Scanning electron microscopy, Silica, Silica sand, Sodium, Soil structure interactions, Soils, Stabilization, Strength of materials, Testing, Peat, cement, compressive strength, mechanical property, peat soil, permeability, shear test, soil stabilization
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Mr Jenal S
Date Deposited: 10 Feb 2014 02:22
Last Modified: 10 Feb 2014 02:22
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/8863

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