Bio-electrochemical removal of nitrate from water and wastewater-A review

Ghafari, S. and Hasan, M. and Aroua, M.K. (2008) Bio-electrochemical removal of nitrate from water and wastewater-A review. Bioresource Technology, 99 (10). pp. 3965-3974. ISSN 0960-8524

Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy)
Official URL:


Nitrates in different water and wastewater streams raised concerns due to severe impacts on human and animal health. Diverse methods are reported to remove nitrate from water streams which almost fail to entirely treat nitrate, except biological denitrification which is capable of reducing inorganic nitrate compounds to harmless nitrogen gas. Review of numerous studies in biological denitrification of nitrate containing water resources, aquaculture wastewaters and industrial wastewater confirmed the potential of this method and its flexibility towards the remediation of different concentrations of nitrate. The denitrifiers could be fed with organic and inorganic substrates which have different performances and subsequent advantages or disadvantages. Review of heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifications with different food and energy sources concluded that autotrophic denitrifiers are more effective in denitrification. Autotrophs utilize carbon dioxide and hydrogen as the source of carbon substrate and electron donors, respectively. The application of this method in bio-electro reactors (BERs) has many advantages and is promising. However, this method is not so well established and documented. BERs provide proper environment for simultaneous hydrogen production on cathodes and appropriate consumption by immobilized autotrophs on these cathodes. This survey covers various designs and aspects of BERs and their performances.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Cited By (since 1996):75 Export Date: 21 April 2013 Source: Scopus CODEN: BIRTE :doi 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.05.026 PubMed ID: 17600700 Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Aroua, M.K.; Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; email: : Chemicals/CAScarbon dioxide, 124-38-9, 58561-67-4; carbon, 7440-44-0; hydrogen, 12385-13-6, 1333-74-0; nitrate, 14797-55-8; nitrogen, 7727-37-9; water, 7732-18-5; Carbon, 7440-44-0; Nitrates; Water Pollutants, Chemical; Water, 7732-18-5 References: Almeida, J.S., Reis, M.A.M., Carrondo, M.J.T., Competition between nitrate and nitrite reduction in denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens (1995) Biotechnol. Bioeng., 46, pp. 476-484; Beschkov, V., Velizarov, S., Agathos, S.N., Lukova, V., Bacterial denitrification of waste water stimulated by constant electric field (2004) Biochem. Eng. J., 17, pp. 141-145; Biswas, S., Bose, P., Zero-valent iron-assisted autotrophic denitrification (2005) J. Environ. Eng., 131 (8), pp. 1212-1220; Cast, K.L., Flora, J.R.V., An evolution of two cathode materials and the impact of copper on bio-electrochemical denitrification (1998) Water Res., 32 (1), pp. 63-70; Chi, I., Zhang, S.T., Lu, X., Dong, L.H., Yao, S.L., Chemical reduction of nitrate by metallic iron (2004) J. Water Supply: Res. Technol.-AQUA, 53 (1), pp. 37-41; Chiu, Y.C., Chung, M.S., Determination of optimal COD/nitrate ratio for biological denitrification (2003) Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 51, pp. 43-49; Chiu, Y.C., Lee, L.L., Chang, C.N., Chao, A.C., Control of carbon and ammonium ratio for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a sequencing batch bioreactor (2007) Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 59, pp. 1-7; Choe, S., Chang, Y.Y., Hwang, K.Y., Khim, J., Kinetics of reductive denitrification by nanoscale zero-valent iron (2000) Chemosphere, 41 (8), pp. 1307-1311; Choe, S.H., Ljestrand, H.M., Khim, J., Nitrate reduction by zero-valent iron under different pH regimes (2004) Appl. Geochem., 19 (3), pp. 335-342; Claus, G., Kutzner, H.J., Autotrophic denitrification by Thiobacillus denitrificans (1985) Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 22 (2), pp. 289-296; Claus, G., Kutzner, H.J., Physiology and kinetics of autotrophic denitrification by Thiobacillus denitrificans (1985) Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 22 (2), pp. 283-288; Devlin, J.F., Eedy, R., Butler, B.J., The effects of electron donor and granular iron on nitrate transformation rates in sediments from a municipal water supply aquifer (2000) J. Contam. Hydrol., 46 (1-2), pp. 81-97; Dries, D., Liessens, J., Verstrate, W., Stevens, P., Vos, P., Ley, J., Nitrate removal from drinking water by means of hydrogenotrophic denitrifiers in a polyurethane carrier reactor (1988) Water Supply, 6, pp. 181-192; Environmental Protection Agency, 1976. Quality criteria for water. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCErgas, S.J., Reuss, A.F., Hydrogenotrophic denitrification of drinking water using a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor (2001) J. Water Supply: Res. Technol.MAQUA, 50 (3), pp. 161-171; European Council Directive, 1998. Directive no. 98/83/EC on the quality of water intented for human consumption. Adopted by the Council, on 3 November 1998Feleke, Z., Sakakibara, Y., A bio-electrochemical reactor coupled with adsorber for the removal of nitrate and inhibitory pesticide (2002) Water Res., 36, pp. 3092-3102; Feleke, Z., Araki, K., Sakakibara, Y., Watanabe, T., Kuroda, M., Selective reduction of Nitrate to nitrogen gas in a biofilm-electrode reactor (1998) Water Res., 32 (9), pp. 2728-2734; Flere, J.M., Zhang, T.C., Nitrate removal with sulfur-limestone autotrophic denitrification processes (1999) J. Environ. Eng., 125 (8), pp. 721-729; Foglar, L., Briski, F., Sipos, L., Vukovic, M., High nitrate removal from synthetic wastewater with the mixed bacterial culture (2005) Biores. Technol., 96, pp. 879-888; Francis, C.W., Hatcher, C.W., Biological denitrification of high-nitrate wastes generated in the nuclear industry (1980) Biological Fluidized Bed Treatment of Water and Wastewater, , Cooper P.F., and Atkinson B. (Eds), Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester; Galvez, J.M., Gomez, M.A., Hontoria, E., Gonzalez-Lopez, J., Influence of hydraulic loading and air flowrate on urban wastewater nitrogen removal with a submerged fixed-film reactor (2003) J. Hazard. Mater., 101, pp. 219-229; Gamble, T.N., Betlach, M.R., Tiedje, J.M., Numerically dominant denitrifying bacteria from world soils (1977) Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 33, pp. 926-939; Gayle, B.P., Boordman, G.D., Serrard, J.H., Benait, R.E., Bio-logical denitrification of water (1989) J. Environ. Eng. Div., 115, pp. 930-935; Gentzar, C.J., 1995. Membrane dissolution of hydrogen for biological nitrate removal. The 1995 Water Environ. Fed. Conference, pp. 40-60Ginner, J.L., Alvarez, P.J.J., Smith, S.L., Scherer, M.M., Nitrate and nitrite reduction by Fe-O: Influence of mass transport, temperature, and denitrifying microbes (2004) Environ. Eng. Sci., 21 (2), pp. 219-229; Glass, C., Silverstein, J., Denitrification of high-nitrate, high-salinity wastewater (1999) Water Res., 33 (1), pp. 223-229; Gomez, M.A., Galvez, J.M., Hontoria, E., Gonzalez-Lopez, J., Influence of concentration on biofilm bacterial composition from a denitrifying submerged filter used for contaminated groundwater (2003) J. Biosci. Bioeng., 95 (3), pp. 245-251; Grommen, R., Verhaege, M., Verstraete, W., Removal of nitrate in aquaria by means of electrochemically generated hydrogen gas as electron donor biological denitrification (2006) Aquacul. Eng., 34, pp. 33-39; Gros, H., Treutler, K., Biological denitrification process with hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria for drinking water treatment (1986) Aquaculture, 5, pp. 288-290; Gros, H., Schnoor, G., Rutten, P., Nitrate removal from groundwater by autotrophic microorganisms (1986) Water Sup., 4, pp. 11-21; Hagopian, D.S., Riley, J.G., A closer look at the bacteriology of nitrification (1998) Aquacul. Eng., 18, pp. 223-244; Hu, H.Y., Goto, N., Fujie, K., Effect of pH on the reduction of nitrite in water by metallic iron (2001) Water Res., 35 (11), pp. 2789-2793; Huang, Y.H., Zhang, T.C., Kinetics of nitrate reduction by iron at near neutral pH (2002) J. Environ. Eng., 128 (7), pp. 604-611; Huang, Y.H., Zhang, T.C., Effects of low pH on nitrate reduction by iron powder (2004) Water Res., 38 (11), pp. 2631-2642; Huang, C.P., Wang, H.W., Chiu, P.C., Nitrate reduction by metallic iron (1998) Water Res., 32 (8), pp. 2257-2264; Huang, Y.H., Zhang, T.C., Shea, P.J., Comfort, S.D., Effects of oxide coating and selected cations on nitrate reduction by iron metal (2003) J. Environ. Qual., 32 (4), pp. 1306-1315; Islam, S., Suidan, M.T., Electrolytic denitrification: long term performance and effect of current intensity (1998) Water Res., 32 (2), pp. 528-536; Joo, H.Z., Hirai, M., Shoda, M., Characteristics of ammonium removal by heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification by alcaligenes faecalis no. 4 (2005) J. Biosci. Bioeng., 100 (2), pp. 184-191; Killingstad, M.W., Widdowson, M.A., Smith, R.L., Modeling enhanced in situ denitrification in groundwater (2002) J. Environ. Eng., 128 (6), pp. 491-504; Kim, Y.S., Nakano, K., Lee, T.J., Kanchanatawee, S., Matsumura, M., On-site nitrate removal of groundwater by an immobilized psychrophilic denitrifier using soluble starch as a carbon source (2002) J. Biosci. Bioeng., 93 (3), pp. 303-308; Kim, S., Jung, H., Kim, K.S., Kim, I.S., Treatment of high nitrate-containing wastewaters by sequential heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification (2004) J. Environ. Eng., 130 (12), pp. 1475-1480; Kleerebezem, R., Mendezà, R., Autotrophic dentrification for combined hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas and postdentrification (2002) Water Sci. Technol., 45 (10), pp. 349-356; Kurt, M., Dunn, J., Bourne, J.R., Biological denitrification of drinking water using autotrophic organisms with H 2 in a fluidized-bed biofilm reactor (1987) Biotechnol. Bioeng., 29, pp. 493-501; Liessens, J., Germonpre, R., Beernaert, S., Verstraete, W., Removing nitrate with a methylotrophic fluidized bed: technology and operating performance (1993) J. AWWA, 85, pp. 144-152; Macdonald, D.V., Denitrification by an expanded biofilm reactor (1990) J. WPCF, 62, pp. 796-803; Masser, M.P., Rackocy, J., Losordo, T.M., 1999. Recirculating aquaculture tank production systems: management of recirculating systems. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center, Publication no. 452, 12ppOtte, G., Rosenthal, H., Management of closed brackish-water system for high density fish culture by biological and chemical water treatment (1979) Aquaculture, 18, pp. 169-181; Park, E.J., Seo, J.K., Kim, M.R., Jung, I.H., Kim, J.K., Kim, S.K., Salinity acclimation of immobilized freshwater denitrifier (2001) Aquacul. Eng., 24, pp. 169-180; Park, H.I., Kim, D.K., Choi, Y., Pak, D., Nitrate reduction using an electrode as direct electron donor in a biofilm-electrode reactor (2005) Proc. Biochem., 40, pp. 3383-3388; Peyton, B.M., Mormile, M.R., Petersen, J.N., Nitrate reduction with Halomonas Campisalis: kinetics of denitrification at pH9 and 12.5 NaCl (2001) Water Res., 35, pp. 4237-4242; Prosnansky, M., Sakakibarab, Y., Kuroda, M., High-rate denitrification and SS rejection by biofilm-electrode reactor (BER) combined with microfiltration (2002) Water Res., 36, pp. 4801-4810; Rijn, V.J., Tal, Y., Barak, Y., Influence of volatile fatty acids on nitrite accumulation by a Pseudomonas stutzeri strain isolated from a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor (1996) Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 62, pp. 2615-2620; Rijn, J.V., Tal, Y., Schreier, H.J., Denitrification in recirculating systems: theory and applications (2006) Aquacul. Eng., 34, pp. 364-376; Robertson, L.A., Kuenen, J.G., Aerobic denitrification: a controversy revived (1984) Arch. Microbial., 139, pp. 351-354; Sakakibara, Y., Kuroda, M., Electric prompting and control of denitrification (1993) Biotechnol. Bioeng., 42, pp. 535-537; Sakakibara, Y.M., Nakayama, T., A novel multi-electrode system for electrolytic and biological water treatments: electric charge transfer and application to denitrification (2001) Water Res., 35 (3), pp. 768-778; Sayre, I.M., International standards for drinking water (1988) Am. Water Works Assoc., 80, p. 53; Shrimali, M., Singh, K.P., New methods of nitrate removal from water (2001) Environ. Pollut., 112, pp. 351-359; Singh, S., Ebeling, J., Wheaton, F., Water quality trials in four recirculating aquacultural system configurations (1999) Aquacul. Eng., 20, pp. 75-84; Skadberg, B., Geoly-Horn, S.L., Sangamalli, V., Flora, J.R.V., Influence of pH, current and copper on the biological dechlorination of 2,6-dichlorophenol in an electrochemical cell (1999) Water Res., 33 (9), pp. 1997-2010; Soares, M.I.M., Biological denitrification of groundwater (2000) Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 123, pp. 183-193; Sumino, T., Isaka, K., Ikuta, H., Saiki, Y., Yokot, T., Nitrogen removal from wastewater using simultaneous nitrate reduction and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in single reactor (2006) J. Biosci. Bioeng., 102 (4), pp. 346-351; Szekeres, S., Kiss, I., Bejerano, T.T., Soares, M.I.M., Hydrogen-dependent denitrification in a two-reactor bio-electrochemical system (2001) Water Res., 35 (3), pp. 715-719; Szekeres, S., Kiss, I., Kalman, M., Soares, M.I.M., Microbial population in a hydrogen-dependent denitrification reactor (2002) Water Res., 36, pp. 4088-4094; Terada, A., Hibiya, K., Nagai, J., Tsuneda, S., Hirata, A., Nitrogen removal characteristics and biofilm analysis of a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor applicable to high-strength nitrogenous wastewater treatment (2003) J. Biosci. Bioeng., 95 (2), pp. 170-178; Till, B.A., Weathers, L.J., Alvarez, P.J., Fe(O)-supported autotrophic denitrification (1998) Environ. Sci. Technol., 32 (5), pp. 634-639; Watanabe, T., Motoyama, H., Kuroda, M., Denitrification and neutralization treatment by direct feeding of an acidic wastewater containing copper ion and high-strength nitrate to a bio-electrochemical reactor process (2001) Water Res., 35 (17), pp. 4102-4110; Zart, D., Eberhard, B., High rate of aerobic nitrification and denitrification by Nitrosomonas eutropha grown in a fermentor with complete biomass retention in the presence of gaseous NO 2 and NO (1998) Arch. Microbiol., 169, pp. 282-286; Zayed, G., Winter, J., Removal of organic pollutants and of nitrate from wastewater from dairy industry by denitrification (1998) Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 49, pp. 469-474; Zhang, L.H., Jia, J.P., Ying, D.W., Zhu, N.W., Zhu, Y.C., Electrochemical effect on denitrification in different microenvironments around anodes and cathodes (2005) Res. Microbiol., 156, pp. 88-92; Zhu, S., Chen, S., An experimental study on nitrification biofilm performances using a series reactor system (1999) Aquacul. Eng., 20, pp. 245-259
Uncontrolled Keywords: BER; Bio-electrochemical; Biological denitrification; Wastewater; Water; Cathodes; Concentration (process); Hydrogen production; Stream flow; Water resources; Water treatment; Immobilized autotrophs; Nitrates; carbon; carbon dioxide; hydrogen; nitrate; nitrogen; aquaculture; autotrophy; bioreactor; cathodoluminescence; denitrification; design; electrochemical method; health impact; immobilization; pollutant removal; bioelectro reactor; bioremediation; electrochemical analysis; electron; heterotrophy; mariculture; nonhuman; performance; priority journal; reactor; review; waste water management; water supply; Biochemistry; Bioreactors Chemistry; Organic; Electrochemistry; Electrodes; Electrons; Models; Biological; Models; Chemical; Waste Disposal; Fluid; Water Pollutants; Chemical; Water Purification; Animalia.
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Mr Jenal S
Date Deposited: 16 Jul 2013 08:10
Last Modified: 14 Jul 2017 08:40

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item