Nitrate remediation in a novel upflow bio-electrochemical reactor (UBER) using palm shell activated carbon as cathode material

Ghafari, S.; Hasan, M.; Aroua, M.K. (2009) Nitrate remediation in a novel upflow bio-electrochemical reactor (UBER) using palm shell activated carbon as cathode material. Electrochimica Acta, 54 (17). pp. 4164-4171. ISSN 0013-4686

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Abstract

This study investigated the biological denitrification method which is a treatment method able to reduce inorganic nitrate compounds to harmless nitrogen gas. Autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria were used in this study to prevent any problematic outcomes associated with heterotrophic microorganisms. An upflow bio-electrochemical reactor (UBER) was used to accommodate hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria employing palm shell granular activated carbon (GAC) as the biocarrier and cathode material. Bicarbonate as the external inorganic carbon source was fed to the reactor and hydrogen as the electron donor was generated in situ through electrolysis of water. Central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to investigate the effects of two operating parameters, namely electric current (I) and hydraulic retention time (HRT), on performance of the UBER. Electric current range of 0-20 mA and HRT range of 6-36 h were examined and results showed that nitrate can be entirely reduced within application of a wide operational range of electric current (10-16 mA) as well as HRT (13.5-30 h). However, increase of pH at cathode zone up to 10.5 inhibited nitrite reduction, and it was not reduced to the satisfactory level.

Item Type: Article
Creators:
  1. Ghafari, S.
  2. Hasan, M.
  3. Aroua, M.K.(Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Building, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA)
Journal or Publication Title: Electrochimica Acta
Additional Information: Cited By (since 1996):12 Export Date: 21 April 2013 Source: Scopus CODEN: ELCAA :doi 10.1016/j.electacta.2009.02.062 Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Aroua, M.K.; Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; email: mkaroua@um.edu.my References: Glass, C., Silverstein, J., (1999) Water Res., 33, p. 223; Zhou, M., Fu, W., Gu, H., Lei, L., (2007) Electrochim. Acta, 52, p. 6052; Shrimali, M., Singh, K.P., (2001) Environ. Pollut., 112, p. 351; Moon, H.S., Ahn, K.-H., Lee, S., Nam, K., Kim, J.Y., (2004) Environ. Pollut., 129, p. 499; Moon, H.S., Chang, S.W., Nam, K., Choe, J., Kim, J.Y., (2006) Environ. Pollut., 144, p. 802; Ghafari, S., Hasan, M., Aroua, M.K., (2008) Bioresour. Technol., 99, p. 3965; Sakakibara, Y., Kuroda, M., (1993) Biotechnol. Bioeng., 42, p. 535; Sakakibara, Y.M., Nakayama, T., (2001) Water Res., 35, p. 768; Feleke, Z., Sakakibara, Y., (2002) Water Res., 36, p. 3092; Islam, S., Suidan, M.T., (1998) Water Res., 32, p. 528; Cast, K.L., Flora, J.R.V., (1998) Water Res., 32, p. 63; Moreno-Castilla, C., Bautista-Toledo, I., Ferro-García, M.A., Rivera-Utrilla, J., (2003) Carbon, 41, p. 1743; Park, H.I., Kim, D.K., Choi, Y.-J., Pak, D., (2005) Process Biochem., 40, p. 3383; Chih, C.C., Szu, K.T., Hsien, K.H., (1999) Bioresour. Technol., 69, p. 53; Coelhoso, I., Boaventura, R., Rodrigues, A., (1992) Biotechnol. Bioeng., 40, p. 625; Raihan, S., Ahmed, N., Macaskie, L.E., Lloyd, J.R., (1997) Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 47, p. 352; Prosnansky, M., Sakakibara, Y., Kuroda, M., (2002) Water Res., 36, p. 4801; Ghafari, S., Hasan, M., Aroua, M.K., (2009) J. Hazard. Mater., 162, p. 1507; Kapoor, A., Viraraghavan, T., (1997) J. Environ. Eng., 123, p. 371; Adams, W., (2006) Handbook for Experimenters, Version 7.3, , Stat-Ease, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA; Ghafari, S., Aziz, H.A., Isa, M.H., Zinatizadehd, A.A., (2009) J. Hazard. Mater., 163, p. 650; Beg, Q.K., Sahai, V., Gupta, R., (2003) Process Biochem., 39, p. 203; Mason, R.L., Gunst, R.F., Hess, J.L., (2003) Statistical Design and Analysis of Experiments, with Applications to Engineering and Science. 2nd ed., , Wiley, New York; Feleke, Z., Araki, K., Sakakibara, Y., Watanabe, T., Kuroda, M., (1998) Water Res., 32, p. 2728; Yin, C.Y., Aroua, M.K., (2007) W.M.A.W. Colloid Surf. A, 307, p. 128; Aroua, M.K., Leong, S.P.P., Teo, L.Y., Yin, C.Y., Daud, W.M.A.W., (2008) Bioresour. Technol., 99, p. 5786; Issabayeva, G., Aroua, M.K., Sulaiman, N.M., (2008) J. Hazard. Mater., 155, p. 109; Hayes, A.M., Flora, J.R.V., Khan, J., (1998) Water Res., 32, p. 2830
Uncontrolled Keywords: Autohydrogenotrophic denitrification; Nitrate remediation; UBER; Upflow bio-electrochemical reactor; Autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, Bio carriers, Biological denitrifications, Cathode materials Central composite designs, Denitrifying bacteria, Electron donors, Granular activated carbons, Hydraulic retention time, In-situ, Inorganic carbons, Inorganic nitrates, Nitrite reductions, Nitrogen gas, Operating parameters, Operational ranges, Palm shell-activated carbons, Palm shells, Response surface methodologies, Treatment methods, Activated carbon treatment, Bacteria, Bacteriology, Cathodes, Charcoal, Charge coupled devices, Denitrification, Electric current measurement, Electric currents, Electric power supplies to apparatus, Electric reactors, Granular materials, Hydrogen, Nitrates, Pollution, Activated carbon.
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Mr Jenal S
Date Deposited: 16 Jul 2013 14:39
Last Modified: 11 Dec 2013 10:48
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/7442

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