Greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration equipment in Malaysia

Saidur, R. and Sattar, M.A. and Masjuki, Haji Hassan and Jamaluddin, M.Y. (2009) Greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration equipment in Malaysia. Energy and Environment, 20 (4). pp. 533-551. ISSN 0958305X

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Abstract

This paper presents an analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from refrigeration equipment. The refrigeration equipments use refrigerants such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons HFCs, which are believed to contribute the ozone depletion and global warming. Refrigeration equipment thus contributes indirectly through emission due to electricity consumption and directly due to the emission of refrigerants. Greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels are quantified and presented in this paper. The calculation was carried out based on emissions per unit electricity generated and the type of fuel used. The direct emission of refrigerant was calculated based on emission factor and according to the procedure of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), USA. A study was conducted to evaluate the refrigerant losses to the atmosphere and the CO 2 emission from fossil fuels to generate power to run the refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. In this paper, total appliance annual energy consumption by refrigerator-freezer and air conditioner as well as emission has been estimated for a period of 19 years (1997-2015) using the survey data. Energy savings and emission reductions achievable by raising thermostat set point temperature have been calculated for a period of 10 (i.e. 2005-2015) years.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Export Date: 6 December 2012 Source: Scopus CODEN: EENVE Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Sattar, M. A.; Department of Mechanical Engineering, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; email: sattar106@yahoo.com References: Mahlia, Emissions from electricity generation in Malaysia (2002) Renewable Energy, 27, pp. 293-300; Mirasgedis, S., Georgopoulou, E., Sarafidis, Y., Balaras, C., Gaglia, A., Lalas, D.P., CO 2 emission reduction policies in the Greek residential sector: A methodological framework for their economic evaluation (2004) Energy Conversion and Management, 45, pp. 537-557; Johnson, E., Global warming from HFC (1998) Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 18, pp. 485-492; Tsai, W.T., An overview of environmental hazards and exposure risk of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) (2005) Chemosphere, 61, pp. 1539-1547; Tsai, W.T., Energy and environmental policies relating to hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions mitigation and energy conservation in Taiwan (2006) Energy Conversion and Management, 47, pp. 2308-2318; Grimes, J.G., William, P.E.M., Shomaker, B.L., Effect of usage conditions on household refrigerator-freezer and freezer energy consumption (1977) ASHRAE Trans, 83 (1), pp. 818-28; Meier, A.K., Do refrigerator thermostat setups save energy? (1994) Home Energy, 11 (3), p. 11; (1970) General report: Population census of Malaysia, 1. , Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia; (1980) General report: Population census of Malaysia, 2. , Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia; General report of the population census of Malaysia (1991), 2. , Jabatan Perangkaan MalaysiaMahlia, T.M.I., (2004) Energy efficiency standards and labels of room air conditioners in Malaysia, , PhD Dissertation, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; (2001) Phase1-Survey on customer's behavior towards electricity consumption. Final report for study on customer load profile and load forecast, , TNB Research Sdn. Bhd, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Tenaga, S., (2002) Your guide to energy efficiency at home, , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Koomey, J.G., Mahler, S.A., Webber, C.A., McMahon, J.E., (1998) Projected regional impacts of appliance efficiency Standards for the U.S. residential sector, , http://enduse.lbl.gov/Info/LBNL-39511.pdf, University of California Berkley CA. See also; Lu, W., Potential energy savings and environmental impact by implementing energy efficiency standard for household refrigerators in china (2006) Energy Policy, 34, pp. 1583-1589; www.epa.gov/climateleaders, 10-19-2005Yamtraipat, N., Khedari, J., Hirunlabh, J., Kunchornrat, J., Assessment of Thailand indoor set-point impact on energy consumption and environment (2006) Energy Policy, 34, pp. 765-770; Wilkenfeld, G., (1993) Benefits and costs of implementing Minimum energy performance standards for household electrical appliances in Australia, demand management unit, , State electricity commission of Victoria; Schiellerup, P., An examination of the effectiveness of the EU minimum standard on cold appliances: The British case (2002) Energy Policy, 30, pp. 327-332; Friedmann, R.A., Mexico's residential sector: Main electric end-uses and savings potential (1993) Proceedings of European Council for energy efficient economy, , http://www.eceee.org/librarylinks/proceedings/1993/pdf93/931037.PDF, See also; www.worldbank.org/astae/dsmthailand00.pdf, 10-20-2005Meyers, S., McMahon, J.E., McNeil, M., Liu, X., Impacts of US federal energy efficiency standards for residential appliances (2003) Energy, 28, pp. 755-767; www.clasponline.org, 5-10-2005UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-70349796690&partnerID=40&md5=9e5830446288e37f807988f62ae99b64
Uncontrolled Keywords: Fuel mix, Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission, Thermostat set point, and Emission factor, Utilization time, Air conditioners, Airconditioning systems, Direct emissions, Electricity-consumption, Emission factors, Emission reduction, Energy consumption, Energy saving, Hydrofluorocarbons, Malaysia, Ozone depletion, Per unit, Refrigeration equipment, Refrigerator freezer, Set-point temperatures, Survey data, Air conditioning, Capillary tubes, Chlorofluorocarbons, Electric generators, Emission control, Energy conservation, Environmental Protection Agency, Equipment, Fossil fuels, Gas emissions, Global warming, Greenhouse gases, Greenhouses, Ozone, Ozone layer, Refrigerants, Refrigeration, Refrigerators, Thermostats, Leakage (fluid), atmospheric pollution, CFC, electronic equipment, emission inventory, energy use, greenhouse gas, hydrofluorocarbon, pollutant source, Asia, Eurasia, Southeast Asia.
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Mr Jenal S
Date Deposited: 08 Jul 2013 01:04
Last Modified: 18 Oct 2018 04:58
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/6773

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