In vitro evaluation of novel low-pressure spark plasma sintered HA–BG composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

Rizwan, Muhammad and Genasan, Krishnamurithy and Murali, Malliga Raman and Balaji Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao and Alias, Rodianah and Cheok, Yi Ying and Wong, Won Fen and Mansor, Azura and Abd Shukor, Mohd Hamdi and Basirun, Wan Jefrey and Kamarul, Tunku (2020) In vitro evaluation of novel low-pressure spark plasma sintered HA–BG composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. RSC Advances, 10 (40). pp. 23813-23828. ISSN 2046-2069

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The low-pressure spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique is adopted to fabricate hydroxyapatite-bioglass (HA-BG) scaffolds while maintaining the physical properties of both components, including their bulk and relative density and hardness. However, prior to their orthopaedic and dental applications, these scaffolds must be validated via pre-clinical assessments. In the present study, scaffolds with different ratios of HA?:?BG, namely, 100?:?0 (HB 0 S), 90?:?10 (HB 10 S), 80?:?20 (HB 20 S) and 70?:?30 (HB 30 S) were fabricated. These scaffolds were characterized by investigating their physicochemical properties (X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface wettability), bioactivity in a simulated body fluid (SBF) (field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and calcium dissolution), antimicrobial properties, biocompatibility and osteoinduction of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) and human monocyte immune cell response. The XRD and surface wettability results confirmed no formation of undesirable phases and the enhanced surface hydrophilicity of the scaffolds, respectively. The bioactivity in SBF indicated the formation of bone-like apatite on the surface of the scaffolds, corresponding to an increase in BG%, which was confirmed through FTIR spectra and the increasing trend of calcium release in SBF. The scaffolds showed inhibition properties against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs and Alamar Blue proliferation assay indicated the good attachment and significant proliferation, respectively, of hBMSCs on the scaffolds. Alizarin Red S staining confirmed that the scaffolds supported the mineralisation of hBMSCs. The osteogenic protein secretion (bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), type-I collagen (COL1) and osterix (OSX)) was significant on the HB 30 S-seeded hBMSCs when compared with that of HB 0 S. The monocyte migration was significantly halted in response to HA-BG-conditioned media when compared with the positive control (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1: MCP-1). In conclusion, the HB 30 S composite scaffold has a greater potential to substitute bone grafts in orthopaedic and dental applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Bacteria; Biocompatibility; Body fluids; Bone; Calcium; Field emission microscopes; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Hydrophilicity; Hydroxyapatite; Phosphate minerals; Physicochemical properties; Proteins; Scanning electron microscopy; Spark plasma sintering; Staphylococcus aureus; Wetting; X ray diffraction
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QD Chemistry
R Medicine
T Technology > TS Manufactures
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Faculty of Medicine
Faculty of Science > Dept of Chemistry
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 05 Aug 2020 03:48
Last Modified: 01 Oct 2021 03:39

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