Improved strength and reduced permeability of stabilized peat: Focus on application of kaolin as a pozzolanic additive

Leong, Sing Wong and Hashim, Roslan and Ali, Faisal (2013) Improved strength and reduced permeability of stabilized peat: Focus on application of kaolin as a pozzolanic additive. Construction and Building Materials, 40. pp. 783-792. ISSN 0950-0618, DOI

PDF (Improved strength and reduced permeability of stabilized peat: Focus on application of kaolin as a pozzolanic additive)
Improved_strength_and_reduced_permeability_of_stabilized_peat.pdf - Other

Download (205kB)
Official URL:


The aim of this work is to demonstrate the application of kaolin as a pozzolanic additive of stabilized peat. In addition to kaolin, Portland composite cement, calcium chloride and silica sand were used as the materials to stabilize the peat. To achieve such aim, test specimens of both untreated and stabilized peats were tested in laboratory in order to evaluate its unconfined compressive strength and rate of permeability. Each test specimen was prepared in such a way that it has to simulate the in situ condition of deep peat stabilization by deep mixing method. It was found that test specimen with 10 partial replacement with kaolin has the highest unconfined compressive strength that exceeds the minimal required unconfined compressive strength of 345 kPa. The test specimen was subjected to 100 kPa initial pressure and cured in water for 7 days. The unconfined compressive strength of the test specimen was discovered to be 33.7 times greater than that of untreated peat specimen. In laboratory permeability tests, the rate of permeability of untreated peat was found to be 6.43 � 106 times higher than that of stabilized peat. Samples of the test specimens were examined using Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). High peaks of calcium element from the EDX results of stabilized peat specimens imply that the specimens have high calcium composition as a result of cement hydrolysis, and addition of kaolin is believed to induce secondary pozzolanic reaction in which the cementation crystals of mainly calcium silicate hydrate were formed to bind the soil. Based on the observation of SEM of the stabilized peat specimens, it was found that there was a significant pore refinement in the test specimens as a result of the filler effect of silica sand and pozzolanic activity of kaolin.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Export Date: 16 December 2013 Source: Scopus CODEN: CBUME Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Wong, L.S.; Center for Sustainable Technology and Environment, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Km 7, Jalan Kajang-Puchong, 43009 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia; email: References: Haq, A., Iqbal, Y., Khan, M.R., Historical development in the classification of kaolin subgroup (2008) J Pak Mater Soc, 2, pp. 44-49; Taggart, M.S., Miligan, W.O., Studer, H.P., Electron microscope studies of clays (1954) Clay Clay Miner, 3, pp. 31-95; Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., Zussman, J., (1992) An Introduction to the Rock-forming Minerals, , 2nd ed. Longman Harlow; Velosa, A.L., Cachim, P.B., Hydraulic-lime based concrete: Strength development using a pozzolanic addition and different curing conditions (2009) Constr Build Mater, 23, pp. 2107-2111; Sabir, B.B., Wild, S., Bai, J., Metakaolin and calcined clays as pozzolans for concrete: A review (2001) Cem Concr Compos, 23, pp. 441-454; Samet, B., Mnif, T., Chaabouni, M., Use of a kaolinite clay as a pozzolanic material for cements: Formulation of blended cement (2007) Cem Concr Compos, 29, pp. 741-749; Badogiannis, E., Tsivilis, S., Exploitation of poor Greek kaolins: Durability of metakaolin concrete (2009) Cem Concr Compos, 31, pp. 128-133; Gonalves, J.P., Tavares, L.M., Toledo Filho, R.D., Fairbairn, E.M.R., Performance evaluation of cement mortars modified with metakaolin or ground brick (2009) Constr Build Mater, 23, pp. 1971-1979; Kassim, K.A., Chow, S.H., Consolidation characteristics of lime stabilised soil (2000) Malaysian J Civil Eng, 12, pp. 31-42; Thanpornanun, I., (2003) Stabilization of Kaolinitic Soil from Thailand for Construction Purposes, , Master dissertation, Vrije Universiteit Brussel; Kassim, K.A., Kok, K.C., Lime stabilized Malaysian cohesive soils (2004) Malaysian J Civil Eng, 16, pp. 13-23; West, J., Atkinson, C., Howard, N., Embodied energy and carbon dioxide emissions for building materials (1994) Proceedings of the 1st International Conference ''buildings and Environment'' CIB Task Group 8, Section 5, Paper 2, , Building Research Establishment, Watford; Carrasco, L.F., Vazquez, E., Reaction of fly ash with calcium aluminate cement and calcium sulphate (2009) Fuel, 88, pp. 1533-1538; Porbaha, A., State of the art in deep mixing technology: Part I. Basic concepts and overview (1998) Ground Improv, 2, pp. 81-92; Terashi, M., The state of practice in deep mixing methods (2003) ASCE, Geotech Spec Publ, 120 (1), pp. 25-49; Larsson, S., State of practice report session 6: Execution, monitoring and quality control (2005) Proceedings of the International Conference on Deep Mixing, Best Practice and Recent Advances, 2, pp. 732-785. , Stockholm, Sweden; Larsson, S., Rothhamel, M., Jacks, G., A laboratory study on strength loss in kaolin surrounding lime-cement columns (2009) Appl Clay Sci, 44, pp. 116-126; Bich, Ch., Ambroise, J., Pera, J., Influence of degree of degydroxylation on the pozzolanic activity of metakaolin (2009) Appl Clay Sci, 44, pp. 194-200; Landva, A.O., Pheeney, P.E., Peat fabric and structure (1980) Geotechnique, 17, pp. 416-435; Andersen, M.D., Jakobsen, H.J., Skibsted, J., Characterization of white Portland cement hydration and the C-S-H structure in the presence of sodium aluminate by 27Al and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy (2004) Cem Concr Res, 34, pp. 857-868; Kantro, D.L., Tricalcium silicate hydration in the presence of various salts (1975) J Test Eval, 3, pp. 312-321; Double, D.D., New developments in understanding the chemistry of cement hydration (1983) Philos Trans Royal Soc London A, 310, pp. 53-66; Taylor, H.F.W., (1997) Cement Chemistry, , 2nd ed. Thomas Telford London; Wilding, C.R., Walter, A., Double, D.D., A classification of inorganic and organic admixtures by conduction calorimetry (1984) Cem Concr Res, 14, pp. 185-194; Krøyer, H., Lindgreen, H., Jakobsen, H.J., Skibsted, J., Hydration of Portland cement in the presence of clay minerals studied by 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy (2003) Adv Cem Res, 15, pp. 103-112; Goodary, R., Lecomte-Nana, G.L., Petit, C., Smith, D.S., Investigation of the strength development in cement-stabilised soils of volcanic origin (2012) Constr Build Mater, 28, pp. 592-598; Billong, N., Melo, U.C., Louvet, F., Njopwouo, D., Properties of compressed lateritic soil stabilized with a burnt clay-lime binder: Effect of mixture components (2009) Constr Build Mater, 23, pp. 2457-2460; Hebib, S., Farrell, E.R., Some experiences on the stabilization of Irish peats (2003) Can Geotech J, 40, pp. 107-120; Ali, F., Adnan, A., Choy, C.K., Use of rice husk ash to enhance lime treatment of soil (1992) Can Geotech J, 29, pp. 843-852; Alwi, A., (2008) Ground Improvement of Malaysian Peat Soils Using Stabilised Peat-column Techniques, , PhD. Thesis, University of Malaya; Bahar, R., Benazzoug, M., Kenai, S., Performance of compacted cement-stabilised soil (2004) Cem Concr Compos, 26, pp. 811-820; Basha, E.A., Hashim, R., Mahmud, H.B., Muntohar, A.S., Stabilization of residual soil with rice husk ash and cement (2005) Constr Build Mater, 19, pp. 448-453; Miller, G.A., Azad, S., Influence of soil type on stabilization with cement kiln dust (2000) Constr Build Mater, 14, pp. 89-97; Wong, L.S., (2010) Stabilization of Peat by Chemical Binders and Siliceous Sand, , PhD. Thesis, University of Malaya; Xing, H., Yang, X., Xu, C., Ye, G., Strength characteristics and mechanisms of salt-rich soil-cement (2009) Eng Geol, 103, pp. 33-38; Sariosseiri, F., Muhunthan, B., Effect of cement treatment on geotechnical properties of some Washington State soils (2009) Eng Geol, 104, pp. 119-125; Head, K.H., (1982) Permeability Shear Strength and Compressibility Tests, 2. , 1st ed. Pentech Press London; Liu, C., Evett, J.B., (2004) Soils and Foundations, , 4th ed. Pearson Education New Jersey; Clare, K.E., Sherwood, P.T., The effect of organic matter on the setting of soil-cement mixtures (1954) J Appl Chem, 4, pp. 625-630; MacLean, D.J., Sherwood, P.T., Study of the occurrence and effects of organic matter in relation to the stabilisation of soils with cement (1962) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, pp. 269-275. , Paris, France; Ingles, O.G., Metcalf, J.B., (1972) Soil Stabilization: Principles and Practice, , 1st ed. Butterworths Melbourne; Ismail, M.A., Joer, H.A., Sim, W.H., Randolph, M.F., Influence of type of cement on behaviour of cemented calcareous soil (2000) Internal Research Report, G1526 (Geomechanic Group), , The University of Western Australia; Tremblay, H., Duchesne, J., Locat, J., Leroueil, S., Influence of the nature of organic compounds on fine soil stabilization with cement (2002) Can Geotech J, 39, pp. 535-546; Chen, H., Wang, Q., The behaviour of organic matter in the process of soft soil stabilization using cement (2006) Bull Eng Geol Environ, 65, pp. 445-448; Boardman, D.I., Glendinning, S., Rogers, C.D.F., Development of stabilisation and solidification in lime-clay mixes (2001) Geotechnique, 50, pp. 533-543; Ismail, M.A., Joer, H.A., Randolph, M.F., Meritt, A., Cementation of porous materials using calcite (2002) Geotechnique, 52, pp. 313-324; Ta, D.T.C., Wen, C.L., Li, L.G., Kai, C.Y., Fly ash reducing the permeability of soil-cement mixture for the application of seepage cutoff (2011) Proceedings of the GeoHunan International Conference, pp. 142-150. , Condition, reliability, and resilience assessment of tunnels and bridges, Hunan, China; Peethamparan, S., Olek, J., Lovell, J., Influence of chemical and physical characteristics of cement kiln dusts (CKDs) on their hydration behavior and potential suitability for soil stabilization (2008) Cem Concr Res, 38, pp. 803-815; Peethamparan, S., Olek, J., Diamond, S., Mechanism of stabilization of Na-montmorillonite clay with cement kiln dust (2009) Cem Concr Res, 39, pp. 580-589; Filippov, L., Thomas, F., Filippova, I., Yvon, J., Morillon-Jeanmaire, A., Stabilization of NaCl-containing cuttings wastes in cement concrete by in situ formed mineral phases (2009) J Hazard Mater, 171, pp. 731-738; Terzaghi, K., Peck, R.B., Mesri, G., (1996) Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, , 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons New York
Uncontrolled Keywords: Peat; Portland composite cement; Kaolin; Silica sand
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Mr Jenal S
Date Deposited: 10 Feb 2014 02:20
Last Modified: 13 Nov 2019 03:32

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item