Reactive extraction of solid coconut waste to produce biodiesel

Sulaiman, S. and Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz and Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine (2013) Reactive extraction of solid coconut waste to produce biodiesel. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 44 (2). pp. 233-238. ISSN 1876-1070, DOI

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Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel produced using transesterification method where edible or non edible oil and alcohol reacts in the presence of catalyst. Biodiesel is expensive than fossil fuels because of higher raw material and production costs. Solid coconut waste is an alternative raw material from waste and suitable for biodiesel production to lower the production cost. Solid coconut waste is produced after coconut milk extraction and may still contain 17-24. wt extractable oil content. This study introduces reactive extraction of solid coconut waste for biodiesel production. Effects of catalyst amount, KOH (0.8-2.0), temperature (55-65. °C) and mixing intensity (500-900. rpm) were studied to optimize the reactive extraction. Based on the Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the optimum condition was found to be 2.0. wt of KOH catalyst, 700. rpm of mixing intensity and reaction temperature, 62. °C where resulted in 88.5 of biodiesel yield.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Export Date: 21 April 2013 Source: Scopus :doi 10.1016/j.jtice.2012.10.008 Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Abdul Aziz, A.R.; Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; email: References: Fazal, M.A., Haseeb, A.S.M.A., Masjuki, H.H., Biodiesel feasibility study: an evaluation of material compatibility; performance; emission and engine durability (2011) Renew Sustain Energy Rev, 15, pp. 1314-1324; Zeng, J., Wang, X., Zhao, B., Sun, J., Wang, Y., Rapid in situ transesterification of sunflower oil (2008) Ind Eng Chem Res, 48, pp. 850-856; Su, E., You, P., Wei, D., In situ lipase-catalyzed reactive extraction of oilseeds with short-chained dialkyl carbonates for biodiesel production (2009) Bioresour Technol, 100, pp. 5813-5817; Lei, H., Ding, X., Zhang, H., Chen, X., Li, Y., Zhang, H., In situ production of fatty acid methyl ester from low quality rice bran: an economical route for biodiesel production (2010) Fuel, 89, pp. 1475-1479; (2010) Coconut waste as a source for biodiesel production. Chemical, biological and environmental engineering (ICBEE), 2010 2nd international conference on 2010, 2-4 November, , S. Sulaiman, A.A. Abdul Raman, M. Kheireddine Aroua (Eds.); Sulaiman, S., Abdul Aziz, A.R., Kheireddine Aroua, M., Optimization and modeling of extraction of solid coconut waste oil (2013) J Food Eng, 114, pp. 228-234; Vetayasuporn, S., The feasibility of using coconut residue as a substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation (2007) Biotechnology, 6, p. 5; Asian and Pacific coconut community, ,, Available from:, cited 2011, 06.11.11, MARDI; Poarch, D., (2007) Coconut flesh or sapal uses as fuel and flour; Ng, S.P., Tan, C.P., Lai, O.M., Long, K., Mirhosseini, H., Extraction and characterization of dietary fiber from coconut residue (2010) J Food Agric Environ, 8, pp. 172-177; (2012) How to make cookies and macaroons from coconut residue (sapal), ,, Available from:, EPA; Guarte, R.C., Mühlbauer, W., Kellert, M., Drying characteristics of copra and quality of copra and coconut oil (1996) Postharvest Biol Technol, 9, pp. 361-372; Shuit, S.H., Lee, K.T., Kamaruddin, A.H., Yusup, S., Reactive extraction and in situ esterification of Jatropha curcas L. seeds for the production of biodiesel (2010) Fuel, 89, pp. 527-530; Dimian, A., Srokol, Z., Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M., Rothenberg, G., Interrelation of chemistry and process design in biodiesel manufacturing by heterogeneous catalysis (2010) Top Catal, 53, pp. 1197-1201; Kiss, A.A., Dimian, A.C., Rothenberg, G., Biodiesel by catalytic reactive distillation powered by metal oxides (2007) Energy Fuels, 22, pp. 598-604. , 2008/01/01; Kojima, S., Du, D., Sato, M., Park, E.Y., Efficient production of fatty acid methyl ester from waste activated bleaching earth using diesel oil as organic solvent (2004) J Biosci Bioeng, 98, pp. 420-424; Georgogianni, K.G., Kontominas, M.G., Pomonis, P.J., Avlonitis, D., Gergis, V., Conventional and in situ transesterification of sunflower seed oil for the production of biodiesel (2008) Fuel Process Technol, 89, pp. 503-509; Encinar, J.M., Gonzalez, J.F., Sabio, E., Ramiro, M.J., Preparation and properties of biodiesel from Cynara cardunculus L. oil (1999) Ind Eng Chem Res, 38, pp. 2927-2931; Meher, L.C., Dharmagadda, V.S.S., Naik, S.N., Optimization of alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata oil for production of biodiesel (2006) Bioresour Technol, 97, pp. 1392-1397; Zabeti, M., Daud, W.M.A.W., Aroua, M.K., Biodiesel production using alumina-supported calcium oxide: an optimization study (2010) Fuel Process Technol, 91, pp. 243-248; Pua, F.-L., Fang, Z., Zakaria, S., Guo, F., Chia, C.-H., Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin (2011) Biotechnol Biofuels, 4, p. 56; Nakpong, P., Wootthikanokkhan, S., High free fatty acid coconut oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand (2010) Renew Energy, 35, pp. 1682-1687
Uncontrolled Keywords: Biodiesel; Coconut waste Optimization; Reactive extraction; Wastes, Alternative diesel fuel; Alternative raw material; Biodiesel production; Coconut milk; Coconut wastes; KOH Catalysts; Mixing intensity; Non-edible oil; Oil contents; Optimum conditions; Production cost; Reaction temperature; Response surface methodology; Trans-esterification methods; Catalysts; Diesel fuels; Extraction; Fossil fuels; Mixing.
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Mr Jenal S
Date Deposited: 16 Jul 2013 01:39
Last Modified: 06 Dec 2019 08:16

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