Effects of annealing treatment on optical properties of anatase TiO 2 thin films

Hasan, M.M. and Haseeb, A.S. Md. Abdul and Saidur, Rahman and Masjuki, Haji Hassan (2009) Effects of annealing treatment on optical properties of anatase TiO 2 thin films. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 40. pp. 221-225. ISSN 2010-376X,

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In this investigation, anatase TiO 2 thin films were grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at a high sputtering pressure and room temperature. The anatase films were then annealed at 300-600 °C in air for a period of 1 hour. To examine the structure and morphology of the films, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods were used respectively. From X-ray diffraction patterns of the TiO 2 films, it was found that the as-deposited film showed some differences compared with the annealed films and the intensities of the peaks of the crystalline phase increased with the increase of annealing temperature. From AFM images, the distinct variations in the morphology of the thin films were also observed. The optical constants were characterized using the transmission spectra of the films obtained by UV-VIS-IR spectrophotometer. Besides, optical thickness of the film deposited at room temperature was calculated and cross-checked by taking a cross-sectional image through SEM. The optical band gaps were evaluated through Tauc model. It was observed that TiO 2 films produced at room temperatures exhibited high visible transmittance and transmittance decreased slightly with the increase of annealing temperatures. The films were found to be crystalline having anatase phase. The refractive index of the films was found from 2.31-2.35 in the visible range. The extinction coefficient was nearly zero in the visible range and was found to increase with annealing temperature. The allowed indirect optical band gap of the films was estimated to be in the range from 3.39 to 3.42 eV which showed a small variation. The allowed direct band gap was found to increase from 3.67 to 3.72 eV. The porosity was also found to decrease at a higher annealing temperature making the film compact and dense.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Export Date: 6 December 2012 Source: Scopus Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Hasan, M. M.; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; email: mmhasan92@yahoo.com References: Pulker, H.K., (1999) Coatings on Glass, , Elsevier, Amsterdam; Sung, Y.M., Kim, H.J., Sputter deposition and surface treatment of TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells using reactive RF plasma (2007) Thin Solid Films, 515, pp. 4996-4999; Yang, W., Wolden, C.A., Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of TiO2 thin films for dielectric applications (2006), 515, pp. 1708-1713Euvananont, C., Junin, C., Inpor, K., Limthongkul, P., Thanachayanont, C., TiO2 optical coating layers for self-cleaning applications (2008) Ceramics International, 34, pp. 1067-1071; Tavares, C.J., Vieira, J., Rebouta, L., Hungerford, G., Coutinho, P., Teixeira, V., Carneiro, J.O., Fernandes, A.J., Reactive sputtering deposition of photocatalytic TiO 2 thin films on glass substrates (2007) Mater. Sci. Eng., B, 138, pp. 139-143; Okada, M., Tazawa, M., Jin, P., Yamada, Y., Yoshimura, K., Fabrication of photocatalytic heat-mirror with TiO 2/TiN/ TiO 2 stacked layers (2006) Vacuum, 80, pp. 732-735; Kawasaki, H., Ohshima, T., Yagyu, Y., Suda, Y., Khartsev, S.I., Grishin, A.M., TiO 2/TiN/ TiO 2 heat mirrors by laser ablation of single TiN target (2038) J. Phys.: Confer. Series, 2008 (1), p. 100; Ray, S., Dutta, U., Das, R., Chatterjee, P., Modelling of experimentally measured optical characteristics of ITO/TiO 2 transparent multi-layer heat shields (2007) J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 40, pp. 2445-2451; Wang, Z., Chen, Q., Cai, X., Metal-based transparent heat mirror for ultraviolet curing applications (2005) Applied Surface Science, 239, pp. 262-267; Jin, P., Miao, L., Tanemura, S., Xu, G., Tazawa, M., Yoshimura, K., Formation and characterization of TiO 2 thin films with application to a multifunctional heat mirror (2003) Applied Surface Science, 212-213, pp. 775-781; Ye, Q., Liu, P.Y., Tang, Z.F., Zhai, L., Hydrophilic properties of nano- TiO 2 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering (2007) Vacuum, 81, pp. 627-631; Habibi, M.H., Talebian, N., Choi, J.H., The effect of annealing on photocatalytic properties of nanostructured titanium dioxide thin films (2007) Dyes and Pigments, 73, pp. 103-110; Yang, C., Fan, H., Xi, Y., Chen, J., Li, Z., Effects of depositing temperatures on structure and optical properties of TiO 2 film deposited by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation (2008) Applied Surface Science, 254, pp. 2685-2689; Amor, S.B., Baud, G., Jacquet, M., Pichon, N., Photoprotective titania coatings on PET substrates (1998) Surf. Coat. Technol., 102, pp. 63-72; Ghamsari, M.S., Bahramian, A.R., High transparent sol-gel derived nanostructured TiO 2 thin film (2008) Materials Letters, 62, pp. 361-364; Wang, Z., Helmersson, U., Käll, P.O., Optical properties of anatase TiO 2 thin films prepared by aqueous sol-gel process at low temperature (2002) Thin Solid Films, 405, pp. 50-54; Sun, H., Wang, C., Pang, S., Li, X., Tao, Y., Tang, H., Liu, M., Photocatalytic TiO 2 films prepared by chemical vapor deposition at atmosphere pressure (2008) J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 354, pp. 1440-1443; Hou, Y.Q., Zhuang, D.M., Zhang, G., Zhao, M., Wu, M.S., Influence of annealing temperature on the properties of titanium oxide thin film (2003) Applied Surface Science, 218, pp. 98-106; Sawanepoel, R., Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon (1983) J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., 16, pp. 1214-1222; Karuppasamy, A., Subrahmanyam, A., Studies on the room temperature growth of nanoanatase phase TiO 2 thin films by pulsed dc magnetron with oxygen as sputter gas (2007) J. Appl. Phys., 101, p. 064318; Tauc, J., Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors (1974), Plenum, LondonUR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-78651563516&partnerID=40&md5=26da9d516314cb73b1af6f39423eef6d
Uncontrolled Keywords: Optical properties; RF reactive sputtering; Structural properties; Surface morphology; Titanium dioxide; AFM image; Anatase films; Anatase phase; Anatase TiO; Annealed films; Annealing temperatures; Annealing treatments; As-deposited films; Cross sectional image; Crystalline phase; Direct band gap; Extinction coefficients; Glass substrates; Optical thickness; Radio frequency magnetron sputtering; Room temperature; SEM; Small variations; Sputtering pressures; Structure and morphology; Tauc model; TiO; Transmission spectrums; Visible range; Visible transmittance; Annealing; Atomic force microscopy; Crystalline materials; Diffraction; Energy gap; Holographic interferometry; Light transmission; Morphology; Optical band gaps; Optical constants; Organic polymers; Refractive index; Thin films; Titanium; Titanium oxides; X ray diffraction; Optical films.
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Mr Jenal S
Date Deposited: 08 Jul 2013 02:13
Last Modified: 18 Oct 2018 03:55
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/6792

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