Localization Free Energy Efficient and Cooperative Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Shah, Sahar and Khan, Anwar and Ali, Ihsan and Ko, Kwang Man and Mahmood, Hasan (2018) Localization Free Energy Efficient and Cooperative Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. Symmetry, 10 (10). p. 498. ISSN 2073-8994, DOI https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10100498.

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10100498


Mitigation of channel unfavorable circumstances during data routing in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has utmost significance. It guarantees saving packet corruption along unfavorable channels so that vital data is not lost or become meaningless. This paper proposes two routing protocols for UWSNs: localization free energy efficient routing (LFEER) and its improved version, localization free energy efficient cooperative routing (Co-LFEER). The LFEER makes decision of choosing a relay based on its maximum residual energy, number of hops and the bit error rate of the link over which packets are transmitted. These metrics are chosen to save packets from corruption to the maximum limit and maintain stable paths (where nodes do not die soon). Since a single link is used in the LFEER for packets forwarding, the link may become worse with changing circumstances of the channel. To deal with this issue, cooperative routing is added to the LFFER to construct the Co-LFEER protocol, in which some copies of packets are received by destination to decide about packets quality. Converse to some prevalent protocols, both LFEER and Co-LFEER are independent of knowing the sensor nodes' positions, which increases computational complexity and wasteful utilization of resources. Based on extensive simulations, the proposed schemes are better than Co-DBR in reducing energy utilization and advancing packets to the desired destination.

Item Type: Article
Funders: Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2017030223)
Additional Information: Ihsan Ali. Ph.D. student at University of Malaya.
Uncontrolled Keywords: UWSNs; LFEER; Co-LFEER; routing
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Divisions: Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 18 Mar 2019 07:49
Last Modified: 18 Mar 2019 07:49
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/20730

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